Zimmer, J., et al. (2012). "A vegan or vegetarian diet substantially alters the human colonic faecal microbiota." Eur J Clin Nutr 66(1): 53-60.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Consisting of approximately 10(14) microbial cells, the intestinal microbiota represents the largest and the most complex microbial community inhabiting the human body. However, the influence of regular diets on the microbiota is widely unknown. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We examined faecal samples of vegetarians (n=144), vegans (n=105) and an equal number of control subjects consuming ordinary omnivorous diet who were matched for age and gender. We used classical bacteriological isolation, identification and enumeration of the main anaerobic and aerobic bacterial genera and computed absolute and relative numbers that were compared between groups. RESULTS: Total counts of Bacteroides spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Escherichia coli and Enterobacteriaceae spp. were significantly lower (P=0.001, P=0.002, P=0.006 and P=0.008, respectively) in vegan samples than in controls, whereas others (E. coli biovars, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., other Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp., Citrobacter spp. and Clostridium spp.) were not. Subjects on a vegetarian diet ranked between vegans and controls. The total microbial count did not differ between the groups. In addition, subjects on a vegan or vegetarian diet showed significantly (P=0.0001) lower stool pH than did controls, and stool pH and counts of E. coli and Enterobacteriaceae were significantly correlated across all subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Maintaining a strict vegan or vegetarian diet results in a significant shift in the microbiota while total cell numbers remain unaltered.
Davey, S., et al. (2012). "Are commonly prescribed medicines in otorhinolaryngology suitable for vegetarian patients?" Clin Otolaryngol 37(6): 499-500.
De Keyzer, W., et al. (2012). "Nutritional quality and acceptability of a weekly vegetarian lunch in primary-school canteens in Ghent, Belgium: 'Thursday Veggie Day'." Public Health Nutr 15(12): 2326-2330.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the nutritional adequacy and acceptability to children of vegetarian lunches served on 'Thursday Veggie Day' - a public health initiative in Ghent (Belgium) primary schools. DESIGN: A comparison of food leftovers from main courses on regular days and Thursdays was made using a visual plate waste method. The nutritional value of the vegetarian meat analogue and meat components of main courses served on five 'Thursday Veggie Days' and five comparable conventional main courses was evaluated using three criteria (maximum 30 % of energy from fat, maximum of one-third of fat as saturated fat and minimum 1.5 g of dietary fibre per 420 kJ). SETTING: Two canteens from primary schools in Ghent, Belgium, participating in the 'Thursday Veggie Day' campaign. SUBJECTS: Primary-school children aged between 6 and 12 years. RESULTS: In total, 1242 and 472 main course plate waste observations of conventional and vegetarian menus, respectively, were evaluated. There was no significant difference in plate waste between vegetarian (16.7 %) and conventional (17.3 %) main courses. Overall, the five vegetarian components were found to be nutritionally adequate with a mean score of 2.2 out of 3, compared with 0.4 for the meat component. However, three of the vegetarian components provided >30 % of energy from fat and, in one, the amount of saturated fat exceeded one-third of total fat. CONCLUSIONS: Vegetarian canteen meals offered as part of 'Thursday Veggie Day' appear to be nutritionally appropriate and as acceptable as conventional main courses to children in primary schools in Ghent.
Filippi, M., et al. (2013). "The "vegetarian brain": chatting with monkeys and pigs?" Brain Struct Funct 218(5): 1211-1227.
An array of brain regions in the fronto-parietal and temporal lobes cooperates to process observation and execution of actions performed by other individuals. Using functional MRI, we hypothesized that vegetarians and vegans might show brain responses to mouth actions performed by humans, monkeys, and pigs different from omnivores. We scanned 20 omnivores, 19 vegetarians, and 21 vegans while watching a series of silent videos, which presented a single mouth action performed by a human, a monkey, and a pig. Compared to omnivores, vegetarians and vegans have increased functional connectivity between regions of the fronto-parietal and temporal lobes versus the cerebellum during observation of mouth actions performed by humans and, to the same degree, animals. Vegans also had increased connectivity with the supplementary motor area. During human mouth actions, increased amygdala activity in vegetarians and vegans was found. More critically, vegetarians recruited the right middle frontal gyrus and insula, which are involved in social mirroring, whereas vegans activated the left inferior frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus, which are part of the mirror neuron system. Monkey mouth actions triggered language network activity in both groups, which might be due to the attempt to decode monkey mouth gesture, with an additional recruitment of associative temporo-occipital areas in vegans, whereas pig mouth actions activated empathy-related regions, including the anterior cingulum. These results support the role of the action observation-execution matching system in social cognition, which enables us to interact not only with our conspecifics but also with species in phylogenetic proximity to humans.
Hietavala, E. M., et al. (2012). "Low-protein vegetarian diet does not have a short-term effect on blood acid-base status but raises oxygen consumption during submaximal cycling." J Int Soc Sports Nutr 9(1): 50.
BACKGROUND: Acid-base balance refers to the equilibrium between acids and bases in the human body. Nutrition may affect acid-base balance and further physical performance. With the help of PRAL (potential renal acid load), a low-protein vegetarian diet (LPVD) was designed to enhance the production of bases in body. The aim of this study was to investigate if LPVD has an effect on blood acid-base status and performance during submaximal and maximal aerobic cycling. METHODS: Nine healthy, recreationally active men (age 23.5 +/- 3.4 yr) participated in the study and were randomly divided into two groups in a cross-over study design. Group 1 followed LPVD for 4 days and group 2 ate normally (ND) before performing a cycle ergometer test. The test included three 10-min stages at 40, 60 and 80% of VO2max. The fourth stage was performed at 100% of VO2max until exhaustion. After 10-16 days, the groups started a second 4-day diet, and at the end performed the similar ergometer test. Venous blood samples were collected at the beginning and at the end of both diet periods and after every stage cycled. RESULTS: Diet caused no significant difference in venous blood pH, strong ion difference (SID), total concentration of weak acids (Atot), partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) or HCO3- at rest or during cycling between LPVD and ND. In the LPVD group, at rest SID significantly increased over the diet period (38.6 +/- 1.8 vs. 39.8 +/- 0.9, p=0.009). Diet had no significant effect on exercise time to exhaustion, but VO2 was significantly higher at 40, 60 and 80% of VO2max after LPVD compared to ND (2.03 +/- 0.25 vs. 1.82 +/- 0.21 l/min, p=0.035; 2.86 +/- 0.36 vs. 2.52 +/- 0.33 l/min, p<0.001 and 4.03 +/- 0.50 vs. 3.54 +/- 0.58 l/min, p<0.001; respectively). CONCLUSION: There was no difference in venous blood acid-base status between a 4-day LPVD and ND. VO2 was increased during submaximal cycling after LPVD suggesting that the exercise economy was poorer. This had no further effect on maximal aerobic performance. More studies are needed to define how nutrition affects acid-base balance and performance.
Ieromuzo, A. A., et al. (2012). "[Influence of combined lacto-vegetarian diet and selective beta-blocking agents on clinical and metabolic indices in patients with coronary heart disease]." Vopr Pitan 81(5): 79-82.
Clinical, hemodynamic and metabolic parameters were investigated for 42 patients with coronary heart disease, after myocardial infarct, recieved selective beta-adrenoblockers. Patients were divided in two groups. The first group (24 patients) were given methoprolol (50 mg/daily) and antiatherogenic lacto vegetarian diet, the second (18 patients)--methoprolol (50 mg/daily) and standard mixed antiatherogenic diet. After the treatment, positive changes clinical and gemodynamic parameters were observed in both groups of patients. Among the clinical symptoms, a more pronounced decrease in blood pressure in the patients on vegetarian diet and a more significant increase in their exercise tolerance. The level of total cholesterol on the serum of blood decreased by 16%, low-density lipoproteins cholesterol decreased by 18%, the atherogenic coefficient (KA) decreased by 31%, only in vegetarian group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in vegetarian group, by 14% and decreased in control group. Balanced antiatherogenic lacto vegetarian diet in patients with coronary heart disease prevents the hyperlipedemic effect caused by the selective beta-adrenoblockers and it is an agent for preventing its negative effect on lipid metabolism.
McEvoy, C. T., et al. (2012). "Vegetarian diets, low-meat diets and health: a review." Public Health Nutr 15(12): 2287-2294.
OBJECTIVE: To review the epidemiological evidence for vegetarian diets, low-meat dietary patterns and their association with health status in adults. DESIGN: Published literature review focusing primarily on prospective studies and meta-analyses examining the association between vegetarian diets and health outcomes. RESULTS: Both vegetarian diets and prudent diets allowing small amounts of red meat are associated with reduced risk of diseases, particularly CHD and type 2 diabetes. There is limited evidence of an association between vegetarian diets and cancer prevention. Evidence linking red meat intake, particularly processed meat, and increased risk of CHD, cancer and type 2 diabetes is convincing and provides indirect support for consumption of a plant-based diet. CONCLUSIONS: The health benefits of vegetarian diets are not unique. Prudent plant-based dietary patterns which also allow small intakes of red meat, fish and dairy products have demonstrated significant improvements in health status as well. At this time an optimal dietary intake for health status is unknown. Plant-based diets contain a host of food and nutrients known to have independent health benefits. While vegetarian diets have not shown any adverse effects on health, restrictive and monotonous vegetarian diets may result in nutrient deficiencies with deleterious effects on health. For this reason, appropriate advice is important to ensure a vegetarian diet is nutritionally adequate especially for vulnerable groups.
Michalak, J., et al. (2012). "Vegetarian diet and mental disorders: results from a representative community survey." Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 9: 67.
BACKGROUND: The present study investigated associations between vegetarian diet and mental disorders. METHODS: Participants were drawn from the representative sample of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey and its Mental Health Supplement (GHS-MHS). Completely vegetarian (N = 54) and predominantly vegetarian (N = 190) participants were compared with non-vegetarian participants (N = 3872) and with a non-vegetarian socio-demographically matched subsample (N = 242). RESULTS: Vegetarians displayed elevated prevalence rates for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and somatoform disorders. Due to the matching procedure, the findings cannot be explained by socio-demographic characteristics of vegetarians (e.g. higher rates of females, predominant residency in urban areas, high proportion of singles). The analysis of the respective ages at adoption of a vegetarian diet and onset of a mental disorder showed that the adoption of the vegetarian diet tends to follow the onset of mental disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Vegetarian diet is associated with an elevated risk of mental disorders. However, there was no evidence for a causal role of vegetarian diet in the etiology of mental disorders.
Pettersen, B. J., et al. (2012). "Vegetarian diets and blood pressure among white subjects: results from the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2)." Public Health Nutr 15(10): 1909-1916.
OBJECTIVE: Previous work studying vegetarians has often found that they have lower blood pressure (BP). Reasons may include their lower BMI and higher intake levels of fruit and vegetables. Here we seek to extend this evidence in a geographically diverse population containing vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians and omnivores. DESIGN: Data are analysed from a calibration sub-study of the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) cohort who attended clinics and provided validated FFQ. Criteria were established for vegan, lacto-ovo vegetarian, partial vegetarian and omnivorous dietary patterns. SETTING: Clinics were conducted at churches across the USA and Canada. Dietary data were gathered by mailed questionnaire. SUBJECTS: Five hundred white subjects representing the AHS-2 cohort. RESULTS: Covariate-adjusted regression analyses demonstrated that the vegan vegetarians had lower systolic and diastolic BP (mmHg) than omnivorous Adventists (beta = -6.8, P < 0.05 and beta = -6.9, P < 0.001). Findings for lacto-ovo vegetarians (beta = -9.1, P < 0.001 and beta = -5.8, P < 0.001) were similar. The vegetarians (mainly the vegans) were also less likely to be using antihypertensive medications. Defining hypertension as systolic BP > 139 mmHg or diastolic BP > 89 mmHg or use of antihypertensive medications, the odds ratio of hypertension compared with omnivores was 0.37 (95 % CI 0.19, 0.74), 0.57 (95 % CI 0.36, 0.92) and 0.92 (95 % CI 0.50, 1.70), respectively, for vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians and partial vegetarians. Effects were reduced after adjustment for BMI. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude from this relatively large study that vegetarians, especially vegans, with otherwise diverse characteristics but stable diets, do have lower systolic and diastolic BP and less hypertension than omnivores. This is only partly due to their lower body mass.
Potter-Dunlop, J. A. and A. M. Tse (2012). "Dietary issues inpatients face with being vegetarian: an integrative review." Holist Nurs Pract 26(1): 30-37.
This article reviews the literature from 1985 through 2010 on research related to the dietary issues vegetarian inpatients may encounter in the acute care setting. A thematic portrayal of vegetarianism in the context of the inpatient setting is described. Implications for future research and nursing practice are identified.
Tantamango-Bartley, Y., et al. (2013). "Vegetarian diets and the incidence of cancer in a low-risk population." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 22(2): 286-294.
BACKGROUND: Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Dietary factors account for at least 30% of all cancers in Western countries. As people do not consume individual foods but rather combinations of them, the assessment of dietary patterns may offer valuable information when determining associations between diet and cancer risk. METHODS: We examined the association between dietary patterns (non-vegetarians, lacto, pesco, vegan, and semi-vegetarian) and the overall cancer incidence among 69,120 participants of the Adventist Health Study-2. Cancer cases were identified by matching to cancer registries. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was conducted to estimate hazard ratios, with "attained age" as the time variable. RESULTS: A total of 2,939 incident cancer cases were identified. The multivariate HR of overall cancer risk among vegetarians compared with non-vegetarians was statistically significant [HR, 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.85-0.99] for both genders combined. Also, a statistically significant association was found between vegetarian diet and cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.63-0.90). When analyzing the association of specific vegetarian dietary patterns, vegan diets showed statistically significant protection for overall cancer incidence (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.72-0.99) in both genders combined and for female-specific cancers (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.47-0.92). Lacto-ovo-vegetarians appeared to be associated with decreased risk of cancers of the gastrointestinal system (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.60-0.92). CONCLUSION: Vegetarian diets seem to confer protection against cancer. IMPACT: Vegan diet seems to confer lower risk for overall and female-specific cancer than other dietary patterns. The lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets seem to confer protection from cancers of the gastrointestinal tract.
Timko, C. A., et al. (2012). "Will the real vegetarian please stand up? An investigation of dietary restraint and eating disorder symptoms in vegetarians versus non-vegetarians." Appetite 58(3): 982-990.
Adherence to a vegetarian diet has been hypothesized to be a factor in the onset and maintenance of disordered eating behavior; however, evidence to support this assumption has been largely mixed. The two studies presented here sought to address the causes of inconsistent findings in previous research, including: small samples of true vegetarians, lack of appropriate operational definitions of "vegetarianism", and uncertainty about the appropriateness of existing assessments of eating behaviors for semi-vegetarians. Study 1 assessed eating behaviors in the largest samples of confirmed true vegetarians and vegans surveyed to date, and compared them to semi-vegetarians and omnivores. Semi-vegetarians reported the highest levels of eating-related pathology; true vegetarians and vegans appeared to be healthiest in regards to weight and eating. Study 2 examined differences between semi-vegetarians and omnivores in terms of restraint and disordered eating and found little evidence for more eating-related pathology in semi-vegetarians, compared to omnivores. Semi-vegetarians' higher scores on traditional assessments of eating behaviors appeared artificially inflated by ratings of items assessing avoidance of specific food items which should be considered normative in the context of a vegetarian diet. Findings shed light on the sources of inconsistencies in prior research on eating behaviors in vegetarians and suggest that semi-vegetarianism - as opposed to true vegetarianism or veganism - is the most likely related to disordered eating.
등록된 댓글이 없습니다.