(2008). "[Vegetarian diet can also cause salmonella infections]." Kinderkrankenschwester 27(9): 393.
Appleby, P. (2008). "Re: A comparison of some of the cardiovascular risk factors in vegetarian and omnivorous Turkish females." J Hum Nutr Diet 21(2): 177; author reply 178.
Aroni, K., et al. (2008). "Skin hyperpigmentation and increased angiogenesis secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency in a young vegetarian woman." Acta Derm Venereol 88(2): 191-192.
Burke, L. E., et al. (2008). "A randomized clinical trial of a standard versus vegetarian diet for weight loss: the impact of treatment preference." Int J Obes (Lond) 32(1): 166-176.
BACKGROUND: With obesity rampant, methods to achieve sustained weight loss remain elusive. OBJECTIVE: To compare the long-term weight-loss efficacy of 2 cal and fat-restricted diets, standard (omnivorous) versus lacto-ovo-vegetarian, and to determine the effect of a chosen diet versus an assigned diet. DESIGN, SUBJECTS: A randomized clinical trial was conducted with 176 adults who were sedentary and overweight (mean body mass index, 34.0 kg/m(2)). Participants were first randomly assigned to either receive their preferred diet or be assigned to a diet group and second, were given their diet of preference or randomly assigned to a standard weight-loss diet or a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet. Participants underwent a university-based weight-control program consisting of daily dietary and exercise goals plus 12 months of behavioral counseling followed by a 6-month maintenance phase. MEASUREMENTS: Percentage change in body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, low- and high-density lipoprotein, glucose, insulin and macronutrient intake. RESULTS: The program was completed by 132 (75%) of the participants. At 18 months, mean percentage weight loss was greater (P=0.01) in the two groups that were assigned a diet (standard, 8.0% (s.d., 7.8%); vegetarian, 7.9% (s.d., 8.1%)) than in those provided the diet of their choice (standard, 3.9% (s.d., 6.1%); vegetarian, 5.3% (s.d., 6.2%)). No difference was observed in weight loss between the two types of diet. Over the 18-month program, all groups showed significant weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: Participants assigned to their dietary preference did not have enhanced treatment outcomes. However, all groups lost weight with losses ranging from 4 to 8% at 18 months.
Cox, S. R. (2008). "Staying healthy on a vegetarian diet during pregnancy." J Midwifery Womens Health 53(1): 91-92.
Fox, N. and K. Ward (2008). "Health, ethics and environment: a qualitative study of vegetarian motivations." Appetite 50(2-3): 422-429.
This qualitative study explored the motivations of vegetarians by means of online ethnographic research with participants in an international message board. The researcher participated in discussions on the board, gathered responses to questions from 33 participants, and conducted follow-up e-mail interviews with 18 of these participants. Respondents were predominantly from the US, Canada and the UK. Seventy per cent were females, and ages ranged from 14 to 53, with a median of 26 years. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. While this research found that health and the ethical treatment of animals were the main motivators for participants' vegetarianism, participants reported a range of commitments to environmental concerns, although in only one case was environmentalism a primary motivator for becoming a vegetarian. The data indicate that vegetarians may follow a trajectory, in which initial motivations are augmented over time by other reasons for sustaining or further restricting their diet.
Fu, C. H., et al. (2008). "Alteration of cardiovascular autonomic functions by vegetarian diets in postmenopausal women is related to LDL cholesterol levels." Chin J Physiol 51(2): 100-105.
This study was designed to test the hypothesis that alteration of cardiovascular autonomic functions by vegetarian diets in healthy postmenopausal women is related to lipid metabolism. A total of 70 healthy postmenopausal women not on hormone therapy participated in this study: 35 were vegetarians (mean age 55.0 years) and 35 were omnivores (mean age 55.1 years). Cardiovascular autonomic functions and baroreflex sensitivity were evaluated by specific frequency-domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV) and arterial blood pressure fluctuation. The vegetarians had statistically significant lowered blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, and fasting glucose levels compared with the omnivores. The vegetarians exhibited a significant higher total power, low-frequency (LF; 0.04-0.15 Hz) and high-frequency (HF; 0.15-0.4 Hz) of HRV and increased baroreflex sensitivity measures [Brr(LF) and Brr(HF)] compared with the omnivores. Total power, LF and HF of HRV, Brr(LF), and Brr(HF) were significantly and negatively correlated with LDL-cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.01). We concluded that the increases of cardiac vagal activity and baroreflex sensitivity by vegetarian diets in postmenopausal women are inversely related to LDL-cholesterol levels.
Ginter, E. (2008). "Vegetarian diets, chronic diseases and longevity." Bratisl Lek Listy 109(10): 463-466.
Vegetarians form a non-homogenous group consisting of semivegetarians (plant food, dairy products, eggs and fish), lacto-ovo vegetarians (plant food, dairy products, eggs) and vegans (plant food only). According to pure vegetarian ideologists, people consuming vegetarian diet have better health and live longer than nonvegetarians, because persons consuming milk, dairy products, meat, eggs and fish are at health risk. In fact the most healthy people in Europe are inhabitants of Iceland, Switzerland and Scandinavia, consuming great amounts of food of animal origin. Meta-analysis of several prospective studies showed no significant differences in the mortality caused by colorectal, stomach, lung, prostate or breast cancers and stroke between vegetarians and "health-conscious" nonvegetarians. In vegetarians, a decrease of ischemic heart disease mortality was observed probably due to lower total serum cholesterol levels, lower prevalence of obesity and higher consumption of antioxidants. Very probably, an ample consumption of fruits and vegetables and not the exclusion of meat make vegetarians healthful. Now, the largest cohort study of diet and health on more than half million of persons, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, will bring new data on the relationships between diet, lifestyle and environmental factors and the incidence of cancer, cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. Vegetarianism is a form of food restriction; and in our overfed society, food restriction is a plus unless it results in a nutritional deficiency (Fig. 1, Tab. 2, Ref. 18).
Karabudak, E., et al. (2008). "A comparison of some of the cardiovascular risk factors in vegetarian and omnivorous Turkish females." J Hum Nutr Diet 21(1): 13-22.
BACKGROUND: Elevated serum total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Homocysteine levels may be influenced by dietary habits. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of a vegetarian diet on some of the cardiovascular risk factors in Turkish females. METHOD: The study was conducted on 26 vegetarian and 26 omnivore females. Serum tHcy, folate, vitamin B(12) and lipids were determined and dietary data were assessed using a 4-day food intake record at two time points. RESULTS: Compared with omnivores, vegetarians had higher plasma tHcy, 10.8 +/- 3.72 versus 12.6 +/- 5.97, (P < 0.05) and folate (P < 0.05) levels. The prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia was higher in vegetarians than in omnivores (34.6% versus 12.0%). In addition, serum vitamin B(12) levels were lower in vegetarians than in omnivores (P < 0.05). In vegetarians, significant inverse correlation was found between tHcy and serum vitamin B(12) levels (r = -0.969, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The higher prevalence of mild hyperhomocysteinaemia in vegetarians indicated a diminished protective effect of vegetarian nutrition in cardiovascular disease prevention.
Karlic, H., et al. (2008). "Vegetarian diet affects genes of oxidative metabolism and collagen synthesis." Ann Nutr Metab 53(1): 29-32.
BACKGROUND/AIM: A vegetarian diet is known to prevent a series of diseases but may influence the balance of carbohydrate and fat metabolism as well as collagen synthesis. This study compares expression patterns of relevant genes in oral mucosa of omnivores and vegetarians. METHODS: Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was applied for analysis of mRNA levels from carnitine transporter OCTN2, hepatic CPT1A and nonhepatic CPT1B isoforms of carnitine palmitoyltransferase and collagen (CCOL2A1) in oral mucosa. RESULTS: Compared with volunteers with traditional eating habits, carbohydrate consumption was significantly higher (+22%) in vegetarians. This was associated with a significant stimulation of CPT1A (+50%) and OCTN2 (+10%) and a lowered collagen synthesis (-10%). CONCLUSION: These novel findings provide further insight into the association of a changed fat metabolism and reduced collagen synthesis in vegetarians, which could also play a role in the aging process.
Korzun, L. P., et al. (2008). "Bill and hyoid apparatus of pigeons (Columbidae) and sandgrouse (Pteroclididae): a common adaptation to vegetarian feeding?" C R Biol 331(1): 64-87.
For the present study, 15 species of pigeons representing the 5 sub-families usually recognized, and 3 species of sandgrouse were examined. The skeleton and musculature of the bill and hyoid apparatus are described. Morpho-functional analyses show that from a key adaptation to the removal and deglutition (without processing) of attached plant items, pigeons would have followed two pathways, one based on the joint muscular control of the movement of the jaws (Columbinae, Treroninae, Gourinae), the other on the separate muscular control (Didunculinae, Otidiphabinae). Sandgrouse would have diverged from this latter, developing the ability to very selectively remove attached plant items as well as to peck particularly small seeds on the ground. Unexpected differences appeared between sandgrouse species which raise eco-ethological problems.
Kumari, B. and T. S. Kathpal (2009). "Monitoring of pesticide residues in vegetarian diet." Environ Monit Assess 151(1-4): 19-26.
Samples (28) of complete vegetarian diet consumed from morning till night i.e. tea, milk, breakfast, lunch, snacks, dinner, sweet dish etc. were collected from homes, hostels and hotels periodically from Hisar and analysed for detecting the residues of organochlorine, synthetic pyrethriod, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. The estimation was carried out by using multi-residue analytical technique employing gas chromatograph (GC)-electron capture detector and GC-nitrogen phosphorous detector systems equipped with capillary columns. The whole diet sample was macerated in a mixer grinder and a representative sample in duplicate was analyzed for residues keeping the average daily diet of an adult to be 1,300 g. On comparing the data, it was found that actual daily intake (microgram/person/day) of lindane in two and endosulfan in four samples exceeded the acceptable daily intake. Residues of other pesticides in all the diet samples were lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of the respective pesticides. The study concluded that although all the diet samples were found contaminated with one or the other pesticide, the actual daily intake of only a few pesticides was higher than their respective ADI. More extensive study covering other localities of Haryana has been suggested to know the overall scenario of contamination of vegetarian diet.
Longo, U. G., et al. (2008). "The Best Athletes in Ancient Rome were Vegetarian!" J Sports Sci Med 7(4): 565.
Marcus, P. (2008). "Victory through vegetables: self-mastery through a vegetarian way of life." Psychoanal Rev 95(1): 61-77.
Pettersson, J., et al. (2008). "NMR metabolomic analysis of fecal water from subjects on a vegetarian diet." Biol Pharm Bull 31(6): 1192-1198.
A vegetarian diet rich in phytochemicals may prevent colon carcinogenesis by affecting biochemical processes in the colonic mucosa. Compounds passing the digestive system reaching the colon could potentially be detected in fecal water. We previously reported that intact fecal water samples from human volunteers significantly decreased prostaglandin production and COX-2 protein expression in colonic cells. The aim with the present study was to further study the composition of the fecal waters, using NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis, and to trace the COX-2 inhibiting activity. Intact fecal water samples and fractions thereof were analyzed for their ability to inhibit prostaglandin E2 production in the human colon cell line HT-29. The majority of the tested aqueous phases derived from intact fecal water showed ability to inhibit prostaglandin production in cells (13.8+/-1.34% inhibition, p=0.01). NMR analysis indicated the presence of significant quantities of amino acids and fatty acids. Major metabolites included; acetic acid, butanoic acid, propanoic acid, glutamic acid and alanine. Smaller amounts of glycine and fumaric acid, which are known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-tumorigenic properties, were also detected. This study describes for the first time NMR metabolomic analysis of fecal water from subjects on a vegetarian diet.
Rastmanesh, R. (2009). "Psoriasis and vegetarian diets: a role for cortisol and potassium?" Med Hypotheses 72(3): 368.
Thomas, E., et al. (2008). "Influence of a low- and a high-oxalate vegetarian diet on intestinal oxalate absorption and urinary excretion." Eur J Clin Nutr 62(9): 1090-1097.
OBJECTIVE: To compare quantitatively the effect of a low- and a high-oxalate vegetarian diet on intestinal oxalate absorption and urinary excretion. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Eight healthy volunteers (three men and five women, mean age 28.6+/-6.3) were studied. Each volunteer performed the [(13)C(2)]oxalate absorption test thrice on a low-oxalate mixed diet, thrice on a low-oxalate vegetarian diet and thrice on a high-oxalate vegetarian diet. For each test, the volunteers had to adhere to an identical diet and collect their 24-h urines. In the morning of the second day, a capsule containing [(13)C(2)]oxalate was ingested. RESULTS: On the low-oxalate vegetarian diet, mean intestinal oxalate absorption and urinary oxalate excretion increased significantly to 15.8+/-2.9% (P=0.012) and 0.414+/-0.126 mmol/day (P=0.012), compared to the mixed diet. On the high-oxalate vegetarian diet, oxalate absorption (12.5+/-4.6%, P=0.161) and urinary excretion (0.340+/-0.077 mmol/day, P=0.093) did not change significantly, compared to the mixed diet. CONCLUSIONS: A vegetarian diet can only be recommended for calcium oxalate stone patients, if the diet (1) contains the recommended amounts of divalent cations such as calcium and its timing of ingestion to a meal rich in oxalate is considered and (2) excludes foodstuffs with a high content of nutritional factors, such as phytic acid, which are able to chelate calcium.
Thorpe, D. L., et al. (2008). "Effects of meat consumption and vegetarian diet on risk of wrist fracture over 25 years in a cohort of peri- and postmenopausal women." Public Health Nutr 11(6): 564-572.
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggesting that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may be beneficial to bone health has sparked interest in the potential benefit of a vegetarian diet. However, other studies have raised a question regarding the adequacy of protein in such a diet. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to take a whole foods approach in examining the effects of foods high in protein on the risk of wrist fracture (WF) in a cohort with a significant proportion consuming a meat-free diet. DESIGN: A cohort study of women who completed two lifestyle surveys 25 years apart. SUBJECTS: One thousand eight hundred and sixty-five peri- and postmenopausal women at the time of the first survey. RESULTS: There was a significant interaction between meat consumption and foods high in vegetable protein. Among vegetarians, those who consumed the least vegetable protein intake were at highest risk for fracture. However, increasing levels of plant-based high-protein foods decreased WF risk, with a 68% reduction in risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13-0.79) in the highest intake group. Among those with lowest vegetable protein consumption, increasing meat intake decreased the risk of WF, with the highest consumption decreasing risk by 80% (HR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.06-0.66). CONCLUSIONS: The finding that higher consumption frequencies of foods rich in protein were associated with reduced WF supports the importance of adequate protein for bone health. The similarity in risk reduction by vegetable protein foods compared with meat intake suggests that adequate protein intake is attainable in a vegetarian diet.
Wang, Y. F., et al. (2008). "Bone mineral density of vegetarian and non-vegetarian adults in Taiwan." Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 17(1): 101-106.
Diet is thought to be one of the leading causes of bone mineral loss in aging people. In this study, we explored the potential impact of a vegetarian diet on bone mineral density (BMD) in adult Taiwanese men and women. This was a cross-sectional study of the relationship between diet (vegetarian versus non-vegetarian) and BMD and the incidence of osteoporosis. Bone mineral density was determined in a cohort of 1865 adult male and female patients who underwent routine examination in a regional teaching hospital in Taiwan between February 2003 and February 2004. Subjects with definite vertebral problems, known osteopathy, or poor posture were excluded. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was used to determine BMD, on the right hip in men and on lumbar vertebrae L2 to L4 in women. The subjects were grouped according to sex and diet, and were then stratified by age within each of the four groups. The outcome measures were the BMD value and the incidence of osteopenia or osteoporosis according to defined criteria. Bone mineral density gradually declined with increasing age in Taiwanese men, while Taiwanese women showed a precipitous decrease in BMD after the 5th decade. However, no statistical differences in BMD were observed between vegetarians and non-vegetarians of either sex. The proportion of subjects with osteopenia or osteoporosis also appeared comparable between vegetarians and non-vegetarians of either sex. BMD shows an age-related decline in Taiwanese men and women, and eating a vegetarian diet does not appear to affect this decline.
Yen, C. E., et al. (2008). "Dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children and their parents in Taiwan." Nutr Res 28(7): 430-436.
The aim of this study was to assess and compare dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children and their parents. Fifty-six omnivores (28 children and 28 parents) and 42 vegetarians (21 preschool children with 18 lacto-ovo-vegetarians and 3 ovo-vegetarians; 21 parents with 16 lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 2 ovo-vegetarians, 1 lacto-vegetarian, and 2 vegans) were recruited. Anthropometric measurements were taken; body mass index and weight-for-height index (WHI) were calculated. Nutrient intake was recorded using 3-day dietary records. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained to estimate hematologic and vitamin status parameters. Height, weight, body mass index, WHI, and triceps skinfold thickness value differences between omnivores and vegetarians in both parent and child groups were not found. Both omnivorous parents and their children had significantly higher fat and lower fiber intakes than vegetarian parents and children. Omnivorous children had significantly higher protein and lower vitamin C intakes than vegetarian children, whereas omnivorous parents had significantly lower vitamin A and iron intakes than vegetarian parents. Vegetarians and omnivores in both parent and child groups had mean calcium consumption less than 75% of the Taiwan dietary intakes. All mean hematologic and biochemical nutrient status indices were within the reference range in any groups. However, both vegetarian parents and children had significantly lower mean total cholesterol and serum ferritin concentrations than those of omnivorous parents and children. Our vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children had normal growth and adequate nutritional status. However, both parents and children had inadequate calcium intakes, which may potentially affect bone health, especially for preschool children in the growing stage.
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