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2007

2007년 논문

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Yen, L. Y. and P. T. Jayaprakash (2007). "Prevalence of diatom frustules in non-vegetarian foodstuffs and its implications in interpreting identification of diatom frustules in drowning cases." Forensic Sci Int 170(1): 1-7.

                Detection of diatom frustules in bone marrow (diatom test) is used for diagnosing ante-mortem drowning where the usual signs of drowning are not present in dead bodies recovered from water. However, controversies over the reliability of diatom test results are continuing. There have been indications on the possibilities of diatoms entering into systemic circulation from atmospheric air, food and drink. While diatoms have been demonstrated in the gut content of edible marine forms such as shrimps and clams, the present study, for the first time, provides empirical evidence on the prevalence as well as abundance of diatom frustules in the samples of cooked non-vegetarian foodstuffs that impend human consumption in Kelantan, Malaysia. It is found that 50 g each of cleaned and cooked prawns and of clams impending human consumption contain about 8360 and 29,054 diatom frustules, respectively. A person accustomed to prawn and clam food would be ingesting an estimated 2 million diatoms in a single year. Considering the suggestion that detection of five diatom frustules in 10 g of bone marrow would suffice for concluding drowning as mode of death, and the fact that there is yet no proof that diatom frustules do not enter into the human systemic circulation through the digestive tract, the estimated number of diatom frustules routinely ingested acquires significance since entry of a few of such ingested frustules into the systemic circulation can lead to false positive test results. The findings of this research raise two important issues: first, population based routine food related diatom ingestion requires to be estimated, and, second, studies have to be initiated to categorically prove or disprove the possibility of entry of diatom frustules into the systemic circulation via the digestive tract.

 

 

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2007

 

(2007). "Patient information. Is a vegetarian diet healthy?" JAAPA 20(9): 50.

               

Ambroszkiewicz, J., et al. (2007). "Serum concentration of biochemical bone turnover markers in vegetarian children." Adv Med Sci 52: 279-282.

                PURPOSE: In general, most children on well-planed vegetarian diets can achieve normal growth and development. However, elimination of animal products from the diet decreases the intake of some essential nutrients, such as calcium and vitamin D, and may influence bone metabolism. This is especially important in childhood and adolescence, when growth and bone turnover are most intensive. The aim of this study was to investigate the serum concentrations of biochemical bone turnover markers in prepubertal vegetarian children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We examined 50 children on vegetarian and 50 on omnivorous diets aged 2-10 years. Dietary constituents were analyzed using a local nutritional program. Serum bone formation (OC, BALP) and resorption (CTX) markers were determined by specific enzyme immunoassays (ELISA) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D by the chemiluminescence method (CLIA). RESULTS: The average daily energetic value and the percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates in the diets were similar in both groups of children and were within the recommended range. The vegetarian children showed about a two-fold lower daily intake of calcium and vitamin D than their omnivorous counterparts. The level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the serum of vegetarian children was also nearly 2-fold lower compared with omnivores. In vegetarians, as compared to non-vegetarians, mean serum concentrations of OC, BALP and CTX were lower by about 20%, 10% and 15%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our preliminary results suggest that an inadequate dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D may impair bone turnover rate in vegetarian children. The parameters of bone metabolism should be monitored in these children in order to prevent bone abnormalities.

 

Baines, S., et al. (2007). "How does the health and well-being of young Australian vegetarian and semi-vegetarian women compare with non-vegetarians?" Public Health Nutr 10(5): 436-442.

                OBJECTIVE: To compare the sociodemographic characteristics, health status and health service use of vegetarians, semi-vegetarians and non-vegetarians. DESIGN: In cross-sectional data analyses of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health in 2000, 9113 women (aged 22-27 years) were defined as non-vegetarians if they reported including red meat in their diet, as semi-vegetarians if they excluded red meat and as vegetarians if they excluded meat, poultry and fish from their diet. RESULTS: The estimated prevalence was 3% and 10% for vegetarian and semi-vegetarian young women. Compared with non-vegetarians, vegetarians and semi-vegetarians were more likely to live in urban areas and to not be married. Vegetarians and semi-vegetarians had lower body mass index (mean (95% confidence interval): 22.2 (21.7-22.7) and 23.0 (22.7-23.3) kg m(-2)) than non-vegetarians (23.7 (23.6-23.8) kg m(-2)) and tended to exercise more. Semi-vegetarians and vegetarians had poorer mental health, with 21-22% reporting depression compared with 15% of non-vegetarians (P < 0.001). Low iron levels and menstrual symptoms were also more common in both vegetarian groups. Vegetarian and semi-vegetarian women were more likely to consult alternative health practitioners and semi-vegetarians reported taking more prescription and non-prescription medications. Compared with non-vegetarians, semi-vegetarians were less likely and vegetarians much less likely to be taking the oral contraceptive pill. CONCLUSION: The levels of physical activity and body mass indices of the vegetarian and semi-vegetarian women suggest they are healthier than non-vegetarians. However, the greater reports of menstrual problems and the poorer mental health of these young women may be of clinical significance.

 

Burke, L. E., et al. (2007). "Effects of a vegetarian diet and treatment preference on biochemical and dietary variables in overweight and obese adults: a randomized clinical trial." Am J Clin Nutr 86(3): 588-596.

                BACKGROUND: A vegetarian diet may lead to numerous health benefits, including weight loss. OBJECTIVE: We examined the joint effects of personal preference of dietary treatment and a calorie-restricted, low-fat lactoovovegetarian diet (LOV-D) compared with a standard calorie-restricted, low-fat omnivorous diet (STD-D) on changes in weight, total cholesterol, ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol (LDL:HDL cholesterol), triacylglycerols, insulin resistance, and macronutrient intake during an 18-mo study. DESIGN: This was a randomized clinical trial of 176 overweight and obese adults who were recruited and randomly assigned first to 1 of 2 preference conditions (yes or no). If assigned to Preference-No, they were randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 diet conditions (STD-D or LOV-D). If assigned to Preference-Yes, they were assigned to the diet they indicated as preferred at screening. The 12-mo intervention was followed by a 6-mo maintenance phase. RESULTS: Participants were mainly women (86.9%) and white (70.5%); 75% completed the 18-mo study. A significant interaction between preference and dietary treatment was not observed for any of the outcome variables. However, participants in the Preference-No groups significantly decreased their triacylglycerols (P = 0.04). The only effect observed for diet was a borderline significant decrease in LDL:HDL cholesterol for the LOV-D group (P = 0.06). Within the LOV-D groups, those who were 100% adherent to the LOV-D had significant and marginally significant reductions in monounsaturated fat (P = 0.02) and total fat (P = 0.05) intakes at 18 mo. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that neither prescribing a vegetarian diet nor allowing persons to choose their preferred diet had a significant effect on outcome measures. However, all participants had a significant reduction in total energy and fat intakes and an increase in energy expenditure, which was reflected in reduced body weight. This clinical trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00330629.

 

Burke, L. E., et al. (2008). "A randomized clinical trial of a standard versus vegetarian diet for weight loss: the impact of treatment preference." Int J Obes (Lond) 32(1): 166-176.

                BACKGROUND: With obesity rampant, methods to achieve sustained weight loss remain elusive. OBJECTIVE: To compare the long-term weight-loss efficacy of 2 cal and fat-restricted diets, standard (omnivorous) versus lacto-ovo-vegetarian, and to determine the effect of a chosen diet versus an assigned diet. DESIGN, SUBJECTS: A randomized clinical trial was conducted with 176 adults who were sedentary and overweight (mean body mass index, 34.0 kg/m(2)). Participants were first randomly assigned to either receive their preferred diet or be assigned to a diet group and second, were given their diet of preference or randomly assigned to a standard weight-loss diet or a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet. Participants underwent a university-based weight-control program consisting of daily dietary and exercise goals plus 12 months of behavioral counseling followed by a 6-month maintenance phase. MEASUREMENTS: Percentage change in body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, low- and high-density lipoprotein, glucose, insulin and macronutrient intake. RESULTS: The program was completed by 132 (75%) of the participants. At 18 months, mean percentage weight loss was greater (P=0.01) in the two groups that were assigned a diet (standard, 8.0% (s.d., 7.8%); vegetarian, 7.9% (s.d., 8.1%)) than in those provided the diet of their choice (standard, 3.9% (s.d., 6.1%); vegetarian, 5.3% (s.d., 6.2%)). No difference was observed in weight loss between the two types of diet. Over the 18-month program, all groups showed significant weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: Participants assigned to their dietary preference did not have enhanced treatment outcomes. However, all groups lost weight with losses ranging from 4 to 8% at 18 months.

 

De Biase, S. G., et al. (2007). "Vegetarian diet and cholesterol and triglycerides levels." Arq Bras Cardiol 88(1): 35-39.

                OBJECTIVE: Compare levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) among vegetarians and omnivores. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 76 individuals--both males and females--separated in four different diet groups: omnivores, lacto-ovo vegetarians, lacto vegetarians, and restricted vegetarians (or vegans). Dosing was done for: TC, LDL, HDL and TG. RESULTS: Significant difference was reported for TC, LDL and TG levels among the samples. Higher levels were reported by omnivores, with decreased levels for vegetarians as animal products were restricted, with lowest levels having been reported by vegans. Mean and standard deviation for TC were 208.09 +/- 49.09 mg/dl in the group of omnivores, and 141.06 +/- 30.56 mg/dl in the group of vegans (p < 0.001). LDL values for omnivores and vegans were respectively: 123.43 +/- 42.67 mg/dl and 69.28 +/- 29.53 mg/dl (p < 0.001). As for TG, those values were 155.68 +/- 119.84 mg/dl and 81.67 +/- 81.90 mg/dl (p < 0.01). As for HDL level no difference was reported between the samples, but HDL/TC ratio was significantly higher in vegans (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Vegetarian diet was associated to lower levels of TG, TC and LDL as compared to the diet of omnivores.

 

de Luis Roman, D., et al. (2007). "[Vegetarian diets; effect on health]." Rev Clin Esp 207(3): 141-143.

                Vegetarian diets are those diets mainly based on the consumption of vegetable product, but that also permit consumption of eggs and milk. The American Dietetic Association made a declaration on these vegetarian diets in which they stated that <<a well-planned vegetarian diet is healthy, nutritionally adequate and provides health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases>>. Some studies have shown beneficial results in obesity, cancer, Parkinson disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and urinary stones, compared with the omnivorous. The possible theoretical benefits in some diseases has been seen in the medical practice (diabetes mellitus, obesity, cardiovascular risk). However more studies are needed in the case of Parkinson's disease and rheumatoid arthritis.

 

Doughman, S. D., et al. (2007). "Omega-3 fatty acids for nutrition and medicine: considering microalgae oil as a vegetarian source of EPA and DHA." Curr Diabetes Rev 3(3): 198-203.

                Long-chain EPA/DHA omega-3 fatty acid supplementation can be co-preventative and co-therapeutic. Current research suggests increasing accumulated long chain omega-3s for health benefits and as natural medicine in several major diseases. But many believe plant omega-3 sources are nutritionally and therapeutically equivalent to the EPA/DHA omega-3 in fish oil. Although healthy, precursor ALA bio-conversion to EPA is inefficient and production of DHA is nearly absent, limiting the protective value of ALA supplementation from flax-oil, for example. Along with pollutants certain fish acquire high levels of EPA/DHA as predatory species. However, the origin of EPA/DHA in aquatic ecosystems is algae. Certain microalgae produce high levels of EPA or DHA. Now, organically produced DHA-rich microalgae oil is available. Clinical trials with DHA-rich oil indicate comparable efficacies to fish oil for protection from cardiovascular risk factors by lowering plasma triglycerides and oxidative stress. This review discusses 1) omega-3 fatty acids in nutrition and medicine; 2) omega-3s in physiology and gene regulation; 3) possible protective mechanisms of EPA/DHA in major diseases such as coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, cancer and type 2 diabetes; 4) EPA and DHA requirements considering fish oil safety; and 5) microalgae EPA and DHA-rich oils and recent clinical results.

 

Fadyl, H. and S. Inoue (2007). "Combined B12 and iron deficiency in a child breast-fed by a vegetarian mother." J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 29(1): 74.

               

Fox, N. and K. Ward (2008). "Health, ethics and environment: a qualitative study of vegetarian motivations." Appetite 50(2-3): 422-429.

                This qualitative study explored the motivations of vegetarians by means of online ethnographic research with participants in an international message board. The researcher participated in discussions on the board, gathered responses to questions from 33 participants, and conducted follow-up e-mail interviews with 18 of these participants. Respondents were predominantly from the US, Canada and the UK. Seventy per cent were females, and ages ranged from 14 to 53, with a median of 26 years. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. While this research found that health and the ethical treatment of animals were the main motivators for participants' vegetarianism, participants reported a range of commitments to environmental concerns, although in only one case was environmentalism a primary motivator for becoming a vegetarian. The data indicate that vegetarians may follow a trajectory, in which initial motivations are augmented over time by other reasons for sustaining or further restricting their diet.

 

Iverson, K. (2007). "When the patient asks. Is a vegetarian diet healthy?" JAAPA 20(9): 49.

               

Korzun, L. P., et al. (2008). "Bill and hyoid apparatus of pigeons (Columbidae) and sandgrouse (Pteroclididae): a common adaptation to vegetarian feeding?" C R Biol 331(1): 64-87.

                For the present study, 15 species of pigeons representing the 5 sub-families usually recognized, and 3 species of sandgrouse were examined. The skeleton and musculature of the bill and hyoid apparatus are described. Morpho-functional analyses show that from a key adaptation to the removal and deglutition (without processing) of attached plant items, pigeons would have followed two pathways, one based on the joint muscular control of the movement of the jaws (Columbinae, Treroninae, Gourinae), the other on the separate muscular control (Didunculinae, Otidiphabinae). Sandgrouse would have diverged from this latter, developing the ability to very selectively remove attached plant items as well as to peck particularly small seeds on the ground. Unexpected differences appeared between sandgrouse species which raise eco-ethological problems.

 

Merceron, G., et al. (2007). "Paleoenvironment of Dryopithecus brancoi at Rudabanya, Hungary: evidence from dental meso- and micro-wear analyses of large vegetarian mammals." J Hum Evol 53(4): 331-349.

                The environment of the hominoid Dryopithecus brancoi at Rudabanya (Late Miocene of Hungary) is reconstructed here using the dietary traits of fossil ruminants and equids. Two independent approaches, dental micro- and meso-wear analyses, are applied to a sample of 73 specimens representing three ruminants: Miotragocerus sp. (Bovidae), Lucentia aff. pierensis (Cervidae), Micromeryx flourensianus (Moschidae), and one equid, Hippotherium intrans (Equidae). The combination of meso- and micro-wear signatures provides both long- and short-term dietary signals, and through comparisons with extant species, the feeding styles of the fossil species are reconstructed. Both approaches categorize the cervid as an intermediate feeder engaged in both browsing and grazing. The bovid Miotragocerus sp. is depicted as a traditional browser. Although the dental meso-wear pattern of the moschid has affinities with intermediate feeders, its dental micro-wear pattern also indicates significant intake of fruits and seeds. Hippotherium intrans was not a grazer and its dental micro-wear pattern significantly differs from that of living browsers, which may suggest that the fossil equid was engaged both in grazing and browsing. However, the lack of extant equids which are pure browsers prevents any definitive judgment on the feeding habits of Hippotherium. Based on these dietary findings, the Rudabanya paleoenvironment is reconstructed as a dense forest. The presence of two intermediate feeders indicates some clearings within this forest; however the absence of grazers suggests that these clearings were most likely confined. To demonstrate the ecological diversity among the late Miocene hominoids in Europe, the diet and habitat of Dryopithecus brancoi and Ouranopithecus macedoniensis (Greece) are compared.

 

Nazarewicz, R. (2007). "[The effect of vegetarian diet on selected biochemical and blood morphology parameters]." Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 58(1): 23-27.

                The objective was to examine whether vegetarian diet influence biochemical parameters of blood and plasma urea in selective vegetarian group. The investigation covered 41 subject, 22 of them had been applying vegetarian diet and 19 were omnivorous. The study shows statistically significant lower values of white blood cells, % and amounts of neutrocytes and insignificant lower level of red blood cells, hemoglobine, hematocrit and platelet in vegetarian group. Significant lower plasma urea level was observed in that group. These changes indicate that high quality deficiency protein was due to vegetarian diet.

 

Richards, M. (2007). "Childhood intelligence and being a vegetarian." BMJ 334(7587): 216-217.

               

Shiwani, A. H., et al. (2007). "Shall we become vegetarian to minimize the risk of coronary heart disease?" J Pak Med Assoc 57(1): 46-48.

               

Thomas, E., et al. (2008). "Influence of a low- and a high-oxalate vegetarian diet on intestinal oxalate absorption and urinary excretion." Eur J Clin Nutr 62(9): 1090-1097.

                OBJECTIVE: To compare quantitatively the effect of a low- and a high-oxalate vegetarian diet on intestinal oxalate absorption and urinary excretion. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Eight healthy volunteers (three men and five women, mean age 28.6+/-6.3) were studied. Each volunteer performed the [(13)C(2)]oxalate absorption test thrice on a low-oxalate mixed diet, thrice on a low-oxalate vegetarian diet and thrice on a high-oxalate vegetarian diet. For each test, the volunteers had to adhere to an identical diet and collect their 24-h urines. In the morning of the second day, a capsule containing [(13)C(2)]oxalate was ingested. RESULTS: On the low-oxalate vegetarian diet, mean intestinal oxalate absorption and urinary oxalate excretion increased significantly to 15.8+/-2.9% (P=0.012) and 0.414+/-0.126 mmol/day (P=0.012), compared to the mixed diet. On the high-oxalate vegetarian diet, oxalate absorption (12.5+/-4.6%, P=0.161) and urinary excretion (0.340+/-0.077 mmol/day, P=0.093) did not change significantly, compared to the mixed diet. CONCLUSIONS: A vegetarian diet can only be recommended for calcium oxalate stone patients, if the diet (1) contains the recommended amounts of divalent cations such as calcium and its timing of ingestion to a meal rich in oxalate is considered and (2) excludes foodstuffs with a high content of nutritional factors, such as phytic acid, which are able to chelate calcium.

 

Thorpe, D. L., et al. (2008). "Effects of meat consumption and vegetarian diet on risk of wrist fracture over 25 years in a cohort of peri- and postmenopausal women." Public Health Nutr 11(6): 564-572.

                BACKGROUND: Evidence suggesting that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may be beneficial to bone health has sparked interest in the potential benefit of a vegetarian diet. However, other studies have raised a question regarding the adequacy of protein in such a diet. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to take a whole foods approach in examining the effects of foods high in protein on the risk of wrist fracture (WF) in a cohort with a significant proportion consuming a meat-free diet. DESIGN: A cohort study of women who completed two lifestyle surveys 25 years apart. SUBJECTS: One thousand eight hundred and sixty-five peri- and postmenopausal women at the time of the first survey. RESULTS: There was a significant interaction between meat consumption and foods high in vegetable protein. Among vegetarians, those who consumed the least vegetable protein intake were at highest risk for fracture. However, increasing levels of plant-based high-protein foods decreased WF risk, with a 68% reduction in risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13-0.79) in the highest intake group. Among those with lowest vegetable protein consumption, increasing meat intake decreased the risk of WF, with the highest consumption decreasing risk by 80% (HR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.06-0.66). CONCLUSIONS: The finding that higher consumption frequencies of foods rich in protein were associated with reduced WF supports the importance of adequate protein for bone health. The similarity in risk reduction by vegetable protein foods compared with meat intake suggests that adequate protein intake is attainable in a vegetarian diet.

 

Yen, L. Y. and P. T. Jayaprakash (2007). "Prevalence of diatom frustules in non-vegetarian foodstuffs and its implications in interpreting identification of diatom frustules in drowning cases." Forensic Sci Int 170(1): 1-7.

                Detection of diatom frustules in bone marrow (diatom test) is used for diagnosing ante-mortem drowning where the usual signs of drowning are not present in dead bodies recovered from water. However, controversies over the reliability of diatom test results are continuing. There have been indications on the possibilities of diatoms entering into systemic circulation from atmospheric air, food and drink. While diatoms have been demonstrated in the gut content of edible marine forms such as shrimps and clams, the present study, for the first time, provides empirical evidence on the prevalence as well as abundance of diatom frustules in the samples of cooked non-vegetarian foodstuffs that impend human consumption in Kelantan, Malaysia. It is found that 50 g each of cleaned and cooked prawns and of clams impending human consumption contain about 8360 and 29,054 diatom frustules, respectively. A person accustomed to prawn and clam food would be ingesting an estimated 2 million diatoms in a single year. Considering the suggestion that detection of five diatom frustules in 10 g of bone marrow would suffice for concluding drowning as mode of death, and the fact that there is yet no proof that diatom frustules do not enter into the human systemic circulation through the digestive tract, the estimated number of diatom frustules routinely ingested acquires significance since entry of a few of such ingested frustules into the systemic circulation can lead to false positive test results. The findings of this research raise two important issues: first, population based routine food related diatom ingestion requires to be estimated, and, second, studies have to be initiated to categorically prove or disprove the possibility of entry of diatom frustules into the systemic circulation via the digestive tract.

  

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