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2006

2006년 논문

작성자 채식영양
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(2006). "Go meatless. Vegetarian meals can help you maximize nutrition while reducing fat and calories." Diabetes Forecast 59(6): 61, 63-64.

               

(2006). "Sees importance of study on cats fed vegetarian diets." J Am Vet Med Assoc 229(4): 498; author reply 498.

               

Ambroszkiewicz, J., et al. (2006). "Serum homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and total antioxidant status in vegetarian children." Adv Med Sci 51: 265-268.

                PURPOSE: The results of several studies point to the positive role of vegetarian diets in reducing the risk of diabetes, some cancers and cardiovascular diseases. However, exclusion of animal products in vegetarian diets may affect the cobalamin status and cause an elevation of the plasma homocysteine level. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of vegetarian diets on serum concentrations of homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and total antioxidant status (TAS) in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 32 vegetarians (including 5 vegans), age 2-10 years. Dietary constituents were analyzed using a local nutritional programme. Serum homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 were determined with fluorescence and chemiluminescence immunoassays. The concentration of TAS was measured by a colorimetric method. RESULTS: Average daily energy intake and the percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates in the diets of the studied children were just above or similar to the recommended amounts. It could be shown that vegetarian diets contain high concentrations of folate. In vegan diets it even exceeds the recommended dietary allowance. Mean daily intake of vitamin B12 in the studied diets was adequate but in vegans was below the recommended range. The serum concentrations of homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and TAS in vegetarian children remained within the physiological range. CONCLUSIONS: The presented data indicate that vegetarian children, contrary to adults, have enough vitamin B12 in their diet (excluding vegans) and normal serum concentrations of homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12. Therefore, in order to prevent deficiencies in the future, close monitoring of vegetarian children (especially on a vegan diet) is important to make sure that they receive adequate quantities of nutrients needed for healthy growth.

 

Berkow, S. E. and N. Barnard (2006). "Vegetarian diets and weight status." Nutr Rev 64(4): 175-188.

                The increasing global health problems of overweight and obesity are associated with coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, osteoarthritis, and certain cancers, among other health concerns. Vegetarian diets are associated with reduced body weight, lower incidence of certain chronic disease, and lower medical costs compared with non-vegetarian diets. We reviewed the literature to ascertain the extent to which and by what mechanism(s) a plant-based diet may mediate body weight.

 

Chadwick, R. G. (2006). "The effect of cooking method upon the titratable acidity of a popular vegetarian dish--scope for reducing its erosive potential?" Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent 14(1): 28-31.

                The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of cooking method on the erosive potential of ratatouille. Two cooking methods, stewing and oven roasting, were applied to standardised ingredients taken from the same fruits and vegetables. The resultant dishes were liquidised and diluted with 100 mls of distilled water. Five 25 ml samples of each group were titrated to pH 7.0 against 0.1 Molar Sodium Hydroxide. In order to ascertain the relative contribution of each ingredient each was singly prepared and cooked by stewing or oven roasting following the same quantities and dilutions as for the dish as a whole. 25 ml samples of these were titrated to pH 7.0 against 0.1 Molar Sodium Hydroxide. For ratatouille as a dish significantly (P < 0.0001) more alkali had to be added to the oven roast group (Mean = 8.60 mls, S.D. = 0.31) than to the stewed group (Mean = 3.92 mls, S.D. = 0.50) in order to bring about neutrality. Oven roasting of ingredients significantly (P < 0.001) lowered the initial pH with the exceptions of tomatoes and red peppers. Stewing reduced the volume of alkali required to neutralise aubergine (P < 0.001), green peppers (P < 0.001) and courgettes (P < 0.05). Significantly (P < 0.001) more alkali however was required to neutralise stewed red pepper. It was concluded that the method of cooking identical ingredients affects the erosive potential of ratatouille. Although oven roasting results in a higher erosive potential of ratatouille compared to stewing the method of cooking, at an individual ingredient level, does not have a universal effect upon erosive potential as determined by titratable acidity. This should be borne in mind when advising patients.

 

Chan, T. Y. (2006). "A probable case of amygdalin-induced peripheral neuropathy in a vegetarian with vitamin B12 deficiency." Ther Drug Monit 28(1): 140-141.

               

Chen, H. L., et al. (2006). "Patterns of serum PCDD/Fs affected by vegetarian regime and consumption of local food for residents living near municipal waste incinerators from Taiwan." Environ Int 32(5): 650-655.

                The aim of this study was to evaluate possible factors affecting serum polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels of people living near municipal waste incinerators (MWIs). We selected 19 MWIs in Taiwan and collected 1708 serum samples from residents 18-65 years old who had lived within 5 km of one of the selected MWIs for at least 5 years. The samples were analyzed using a standardized study protocol to assure comparability of the concentrations from 17 PCDD/F congeners. The results suggested that a vegetarian regimen was a protective factor to avoid serum PCDD/F accumulation in the subjects. In addition, the current data seemed to support the hypothesis that serum PCDD/F levels of residents living near MWIs are related to they consumed the locally grown or cultivated vegetable and animal foods, such as poultry products near the MWIs. Our results can be used to create guidelines for preventing excessive PCDD/F accumulation from eating animal and vegetable foods grown near MWIs.

 

Chiplonkar, S. A. and V. V. Agte (2006). "Predicting bioavailable zinc from lower phytate forms, folic Acid and their interactions with zinc in vegetarian meals." J Am Coll Nutr 25(1): 26-33.

                OBJECTIVE: To develop a statistical model for predicting zinc bioavailability from cereal-based vegetarian meals using relative proportion of nutrients, non-nutrients and their interactive effects. METHODS: A database on in vitro zinc dialysability (by isotopic tracer, 65Zn) of vegetarian meals (266 out of 326) from Asia, Africa, Europe /US and Latin America was used to develop a model for estimating zinc bioavailability. A multiple regression analysis adjusted for energy content was carried out for net bioavailable zinc from a meal with the predictor variables as meal contents of iron, zinc, copper, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, riboflavin, thiamine, folic acid, tannic acid, fiber, phytate degradation products (IP6 to IP1), along with their interaction terms. Reproducibility of the model was tested with remaining 60 meals. Validation of the model was done with zinc absorption data of i) 12 young adults on 24 meals and ii) 5 adults with ileostomy on 7 meals. RESULTS: Folic acid, IP3 and IP5 were significant influencing factors for bioavailable zinc. Weighted multiple regression equation was: ln (bioavailable zinc in mg) = -1.701 + 1.285 x ln [(IP5 in mg] x (Zn in mg)] -1.222 x ln(IP5 in mg) -0.0078 x folic acid in microg -0.137 x ln [(IP3 in mg) x (Zn in mg)] with adjusted R--[2] = 0.64, p = 0.0001. The correlation between predicted and observed dialysability of meals was found to be 0.96 (p < 0.01). A significant correlation between observed and predicted amount of absorbed zinc (r = 0.85, p < 0.01) was obtained for the human data of zinc absorption in 12 healthy and 5 subjects with ileostomy. CONCLUSIONS: Bioavailable amount of zinc from vegetarian meals was influenced by IP3, IP5 and folic acid content and their interactive effect with zinc content.

 

Chiplonkar, S. A. and V. V. Agte (2006). "Statistical model for predicting non-heme iron bioavailability from vegetarian meals." Int J Food Sci Nutr 57(7-8): 434-450.

                Availability of non-heme iron has been extensively discussed when meals comprise heme as well as non-heme iron, but seldom so for exclusively vegetarian meals. The present study aimed to develop a statistical model for predicting non-heme iron availability from a composite vegetarian meal. Radioisotopic measurements of in vitro iron dialyzability of 208 out of 274 meals representing vegetarian diets from Asia, Africa, Europe and Latin America and the meal contents of iron, zinc, copper, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, riboflavin, thiamin, folic acid, tannic acid, fiber and degraded phytate forms (IP6-IP1) were used for development of the model. A multiple regression model weighted for calorie contents was developed for the percentage iron dialyzability with the possible predictors as meal contents along with plausible interaction terms. The model was validated with in vitro iron dialyzability of 66 meals and in vivo iron absorption in five ileostomized adults. Application of the model was demonstrated using data on the daily dietary intake of 215 young adults whose hemoglobin levels were estimated twice in 3 weeks. Weighted multiple regression model was: ln(% Fe dialyzability)=1.340-0.259xln(IP2 [mg])+0.188xln(IP3 [mg])-0.278xln(IP5 [mg])+0.0912xln(ascorbic acid [mg])+0.06693xln(tannins [mg])+0.09552xln(beta-carotene [microg])+0.137xln(hemicellulose [g]) (P<0.01, R2=0.51). Good agreement was seen between observed and predicted dialyzability (r=0.90) and human absorption (r=0.89). The model would be useful to estimate bioavailable iron intakes of vegetarian populations and to identify at-risk individuals.

 

Dunham, L. and L. M. Kollar (2006). "Vegetarian eating for children and adolescents." J Pediatr Health Care 20(1): 27-34.

                During the past decade, vegetarianism has risen in popularity among American families. Well-planned vegetarian diets can satisfy the nutritional needs and promote normal growth of infants and children. Research has highlighted nutritional advantages to vegetarian diets and has indicated that this style of eating can lead to lifelong healthy eating habits when adopted at a young age. Several vitamins, minerals, and macronutrients may be deficient within a vegetarian diet. Careful nutrition assessment and counseling will allow nurse practitioners to play a key role in encouraging families to adopt healthy eating habits to assist in disease prevention.

 

Fu, C. H., et al. (2006). "Effects of long-term vegetarian diets on cardiovascular autonomic functions in healthy postmenopausal women." Am J Cardiol 97(3): 380-383.

                The incidence of cardiovascular disease is higher in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women. We hypothesized that long-term vegetarian diets might modulate cardiovascular autonomic functions measured by frequency-domain techniques in healthy postmenopausal women. A total of 35 healthy vegetarians (mean age +/- SEM 55.0 +/- 1.3 years) who had been vegetarians for > or =2 years and 35 omnivores (55.1 +/- 1.4 years) participated in this study. These subjects were all postmenopausal without hormone replacement therapy. Fluctuations in arterial blood pressure and heart rate variability were diffracted into low-frequency (0.04 to 0.15 Hz) and high-frequency (0.15 to 0.4 Hz) segments. Cardiovascular autonomic functions and baroreflex sensitivity were evaluated by specific frequency-domain measures. The vegetarians had statistically lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and lower serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting blood sugar, and hemoglobin levels compared with the nonvegetarians. They also exhibited a significantly higher high-frequency power of heart rate variability and increased baroreflex sensitivity than did omnivores. No statistical differences were found in the low-frequency/high-frequency ratio or percentage of low frequency of heart rate variability between the 2 groups. In conclusion, in addition to the lower blood pressure and lipid concentrations in vegetarians, long-term vegetarian diets may facilitate vagal regulation of the heart and increase baroreflex sensitivity in healthy postmenopausal women, without increasing the sympathetic modulations of the cardiovascular system.

 

Giannini, A., et al. (2006). "Health risks for children raised on vegan or vegetarian diets." Pediatr Crit Care Med 7(2): 188.

               

Key, T. J., et al. (2006). "Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets." Proc Nutr Soc 65(1): 35-41.

                Vegetarian diets do not contain meat, poultry or fish; vegan diets further exclude dairy products and eggs. Vegetarian and vegan diets can vary widely, but the empirical evidence largely relates to the nutritional content and health effects of the average diet of well-educated vegetarians living in Western countries, together with some information on vegetarians in non-Western countries. In general, vegetarian diets provide relatively large amounts of cereals, pulses, nuts, fruits and vegetables. In terms of nutrients, vegetarian diets are usually rich in carbohydrates, n-6 fatty acids, dietary fibre, carotenoids, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E and Mg, and relatively low in protein, saturated fat, long-chain n-3 fatty acids, retinol, vitamin B(12) and Zn; vegans may have particularly low intakes of vitamin B(12) and low intakes of Ca. Cross-sectional studies of vegetarians and vegans have shown that on average they have a relatively low BMI and a low plasma cholesterol concentration; recent studies have also shown higher plasma homocysteine concentrations than in non-vegetarians. Cohort studies of vegetarians have shown a moderate reduction in mortality from IHD but little difference in other major causes of death or all-cause mortality in comparison with health-conscious non-vegetarians from the same population. Studies of cancer have not shown clear differences in cancer rates between vegetarians and non-vegetarians. More data are needed, particularly on the health of vegans and on the possible impacts on health of low intakes of long-chain n-3 fatty acids and vitamin B(12). Overall, the data suggest that the health of Western vegetarians is good and similar to that of comparable non-vegetarians.

 

Kristensen, M. B., et al. (2006). "Total zinc absorption in young women, but not fractional zinc absorption, differs between vegetarian and meat-based diets with equal phytic acid content." Br J Nutr 95(5): 963-967.

                Zn bioavailability is often lower in vegetarian diets mainly due to low Zn and high phytic acid contents. The objective of the present study was to determine the fractional and total absorption of Zn from a vegetarian diet in comparison with meat diets with equal concentrations of phytic acid. A randomized cross-over design, comprising three whole-day diet periods of 5 d each, with a vegetarian diet or diets containing Polish-produced meat or Danish-produced meat, was conducted. Twelve healthy female subjects completed the study. All diets had a high content of phytic acid (1250 micromol/d) and in the meat diets the main meals contained 60 g pork meat. All main meals were extrinsically labelled with the radioactive isotope 65Zn and absorption of Zn was measured in a whole-body counter. The mean Zn content of the whole-day diet was: Polish meat diet 9.9 (SE 0.14) mg, Danish meat diet 9.4 (SE 0.19) mg and vegetarian diet 7.5 (SE 0.18) mg. No difference was observed in the fractional absorption of Zn (Polish meat diet: 27 (SE 1.2) %, Danish meat diet: 27 (SE 1.9) % and vegetarian diet: 23 (SE 2.6) %). A significantly lower amount of total Zn was absorbed from the vegetarian diet (mean Zn absorption of Polish meat diet: 2.7 (SE 0.12) mg/d (P<0.001), Danish meat diet: 2.6 (SE 0.17) mg/d (P=0.006) and vegetarian diet: 1.8 (SE 0.20) mg/d). In conclusion, the vegetarian diet compared with the meat-based diets resulted in lower amounts of absorbed Zn due to a higher content of Zn in the meat diets, but no difference was observed in the fractional absorption of Zn.

 

Mann, N., et al. (2006). "Fatty acid composition of habitual omnivore and vegetarian diets." Lipids 41(7): 637-646.

               High-fat diets are implicated in the onset of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and obesity. Large intakes of saturated and trans FA, together with low levels of PUFA, particularly long-chain (LC) omega-3 (n-3) PUFA, appear to have the greatest impact on the development of CVD. A high n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio is also considered a marker of elevated risk of CVD, though little accurate data on dietary intake is available. A new Australian food composition database that reports FA in foods to two decimal places was used to assess intakes of FA in four habitual dietary groups. Analysis using the database found correlations between the dietary intakes of LC n-3 PUFA and the plasma phospholipid LC n-3 PUFA concentrations of omnivore and vegetarian subjects. High meat-eaters (HME), who consumed large amounts of food generally, had significantly higher LC n-3 PUFA intakes (0.29 g/d) than moderate meat-eaters (MME) (0.14 g/d), whose intakes in turn were significantly higher than those of ovolacto-vegetarians or vegans (both 0.01 g/d). The saturated FA intake of MME subjects (typical of adult male Australians) was not different from ovolacto-vegetarian intakes, whereas n-6:n-3 intake ratios in vegetarians were significantly higher than in omnivores. Thus, accurate dietary and plasma FA analyses suggest that regular moderate consumption of meat and fish maintains a plasma FA profile possibly more conducive to good health.

 

Rosell, M., et al. (2006). "Weight gain over 5 years in 21,966 meat-eating, fish-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men and women in EPIC-Oxford." Int J Obes (Lond) 30(9): 1389-1396.

                BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have shown that vegetarians and vegans are leaner than omnivores. Longitudinal data on weight gain in these groups are sparse. OBJECTIVE: We investigated changes in weight and body mass index (BMI) over a 5-year period in meat-eating, fish-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men and women in the UK. DESIGN: Self-reported anthropometric, dietary and lifestyle data were collected at baseline in 1994-1999 and at follow-up in 2000-2003; the median duration of follow-up was 5.3 years. SUBJECTS: A total of 21,966 men and women participating in Oxford arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition aged 20-69 years at baseline. RESULTS: The mean annual weight gain was 389 (SD 884) g in men and 398 (SD 892) g in women. The differences between meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in age-adjusted mean BMI at follow-up were similar to those seen at baseline. Multivariable-adjusted mean weight gain was somewhat smaller in vegans (284 g in men and 303 g in women, P<0.05 for both sexes) and fish-eaters (338 g, women only, P<0.001) compared with meat-eaters. Men and women who changed their diet in one or several steps in the direction meat-eater --> fish-eater --> vegetarian --> vegan showed the smallest mean annual weight gain of 242 (95% CI 133-351) and 301 (95% CI 238-365) g, respectively. CONCLUSION: During 5 years follow-up, the mean annual weight gain in a health-conscious cohort in the UK was approximately 400 g. Small differences in weight gain were observed between meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans. Lowest weight gain was seen among those who, during follow-up, had changed to a diet containing fewer animal food.

 

Strohle, A., et al. (2006). "[Vegetarian nutrition: Preventive potential and possible risks. Part 1: Plant foods]." Wien Klin Wochenschr 118(19-20): 580-593.

                Today vegetarian nutrition is more accepted and widespread in Europe than in former years. For a long time scientific research on vegetarian diets has focused mostly on malnutrition, whereas nowadays research centers increasingly on the preventive potential of plant-based diets. We followed a nutritive and a metabolic-epidemiological approach to obtain dietary recommendations. A MEDLINE research was performed for all plant food groups relevant for a vegetarian diet (key words: all relevant food groups, "vegetarian diet", "chronic disease", "cancer", "cardiovascular disease", "diabetes mellitus", "osteoporosis"). All relevant food groups were characterized regarding their nutrient content and rated with respect to the available metabolic-epidemiological evidence. Based on the evidence criteria of the WHO/FAO, cancer risk reduction by a high intake of vegetables and fruits is assessed as probable or possible, while a lowered risk of cardiovascular disease is convincing and a lowered risk of osteoporosis is probable. The evidence of a risk reducing effect of whole grain relating to colorectal cancer is assessed as possible, whereas it is probable relating to cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus type 2. There is an insufficient risk-reducing effect of legumes like soja relating to epithelial tumours and cardiovascular disease. The evidence of a risk-reducing effect of nuts to cardiovascular disease is assessed as probable, and in relation to cholelithiasis and diabetes mellitus type 2 as possible and insufficient, respectively. In conclusion, high consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and nuts can lower the risk for several chronic diseases.

 

Strohle, A., et al. (2006). "[Vegetarian nutrition: preventive potential and possible risks. Part 2: animal foods and recommendations]." Wien Klin Wochenschr 118(23-24): 728-737.

                INTRODUCTION: As shown in the first part of this article, consuming high amounts of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and nuts can lower the risk for several chronic diseases. However, the relevance of animal foods consumed within a vegetarian diet is less well-known. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We followed a nutritive and a metabolic-epidemiological approach to obtain dietary recommendations. A MEDLINE-research was performed for all animal food groups relevant with a vegetarian diet (key words: "eggs", "milk", "dietary pattern" "vegetarian diet", "cancer", "cardiovascular disease", "diabetes mellitus", "osteoporosis", "vitamin D", "vitamin B(12)", "iron", "iodine"). All relevant food groups were characterized regarding their nutrient content and rated with respect to the available metabolic-epidemiological evidence. RESULTS: Based on the evidence criteria of the WHO/FAO, colorectal cancer risk reduction by a high intake of milk and milk products is assessed as probable, while a higher risk of prostate and ovarial carcinomas is also probable. The evidence of a risk-increasing effect of eggs relating to cardiovascular disease, colorectal cancer and breast cancer is assessed as probable. As the data of prospective cohort studies suggest, a prudent diet pattern characterized high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and nuts is associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus type 2. In contrast, there is no overall association between prudent diet pattern and risk of breast cancer or colorectal cancer. The critical key nutrients for vegetarians are vitamin D and B12, iodine and iron. CONCLUSION: For the first time evidence based dietary recommendations were provided for persons on a vegetarian diet in the D-A-CH-region.

 

Su, T. C., et al. (2006). "Homocysteine, circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule and carotid atherosclerosis in postmenopausal vegetarian women and omnivores." Atherosclerosis 184(2): 356-362.

                Since the adoption of vegetarian diets as a healthy lifestyle has become popular, the cardiovascular effects of long-term vegetarianism need to be explored. The present study aimed to compare the presence and severity of carotid atherosclerosis (CA), and the blood levels of Vitamin B12, homocysteine (Hcy) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) between 57 healthy postmenopausal vegetarians and 61 age-matched omnivores. Carotid atherosclerosis, as measured by ultrasound, was found to be of no significant difference between the two groups. Yet, fasting blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and Vitamin B12 were significantly lower, while Hcy and sVCAM-1 were higher in the vegetarians as comparing with the omnivores. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the level of Vitamin B12 was negatively associated with the level of Hcy. Vegetarianism itself and Hcy level were significantly associated with sVCAM-1 level in univariate analysis; however, after adjustment for covariates, we identified age but not vegetarianism as the determinant of sVCAM-1 level. Multiple linear regression analysis identified age and systolic blood pressure, but not vegetarianism, as determinants of common carotid artery IMT. In conclusion, there was no significant difference in CA between apparently healthy postmenopausal vegetarians and omnivores. The findings of elevated Hcy in vegetarians indicate the importance of prevention of Vitamin B12 deficiency.

 

Turner-McGrievy, B. (2006). "Vegetarian meal plan. Beneficial for type 2 diabetes?" Diabetes Self Manag 23(1): 12, 14-15, 18-19.

               

Venderley, A. M. and W. W. Campbell (2006). "Vegetarian diets : nutritional considerations for athletes." Sports Med 36(4): 293-305.

                The quality of vegetarian diets to meet nutritional needs and support peak performance among athletes continues to be questioned. Appropriately planned vegetarian diets can provide sufficient energy and an appropriate range of carbohydrate, fat and protein intakes to support performance and health. The acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges for carbohydrate, fat and protein of 45-65%, 20-35% and 10-35%, respectively, are appropriate for vegetarian and non-vegetarian athletes alike, especially those who perform endurance events. Vegetarian athletes can meet their protein needs from predominantly or exclusively plant-based sources when a variety of these foods are consumed daily and energy intake is adequate. Muscle creatine stores are lower in vegetarians than non-vegetarians. Creatine supplementation provides ergogenic responses in both vegetarian and non-vegetarian athletes, with limited data supporting greater ergogenic effects on lean body mass accretion and work performance for vegetarians. The potential adverse effect of a vegetarian diet on iron status is based on the bioavailability of iron from plant foods rather than the amount of total iron present in the diet. Vegetarian and non-vegetarian athletes alike must consume sufficient iron to prevent deficiency, which will adversely affect performance. Other nutrients of concern for vegetarian athletes include zinc, vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), vitamin D (cholecalciferol) and calcium. The main sources of these nutrients are animal products; however, they can be found in many food sources suitable for vegetarians, including fortified soy milk and whole grain cereals. Vegetarians have higher antioxidant status for vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin E (tocopherol), and beta-carotene than omnivores, which might help reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress. Research is needed comparing antioxidant defences in vegetarian and non-vegetarian athletes.

 

Wakefield, L. A., et al. (2006). "Evaluation of cats fed vegetarian diets and attitudes of their caregivers." J Am Vet Med Assoc 229(1): 70-73.

                OBJECTIVE: To determine motivation and feeding practices of people who feed their cats vegetarian diets as well as taurine and cobalamin status of cats consuming vegetarian diets. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. ANIMALS: 34 cats that had been exclusively fed a commercial or homemade vegetarian diet and 52 cats that had been fed a conventional diet for > or = 1 year. PROCEDURES: Participants were recruited through a Web site and from attendees of a national animal welfare conference. Caregivers of cats in both groups answered a telephone questionnaire regarding feeding practices for their cats. Blood was obtained from a subset of cats that had been fed vegetarian diets. Blood and plasma taurine and serum cobalamin concentrations were measured. RESULTS: People who fed vegetarian diets to their cats did so largely for ethical considerations and were more likely than people who fed conventional diets to believe that there are health benefits associated with a vegetarian diet and that conventional commercial cat foods are unwholesome. Both groups were aware of the potential health problems that could arise from improperly formulated vegetarian diets. All cats evaluated had serum cobalamin concentrations within reference range, and 14 of 17 had blood taurine concentrations within reference range. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Vegetarian diets are fed to cats primarily for ethical considerations. Results of this study should aid practitioners in communicating with and providing advice to such clients.

 

Wu, W. H., et al. (2006). "Effects of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on blood lipids, estrogen metabolism, and in vivo oxidative stress in postmenopausal vegetarian women." Eur J Clin Nutr 60(3): 386-392.

                BACKGROUND: Vegetarians are generally deficient in long-chain n-3 fatty acids. Long-chain n-3 fatty acids have a beneficial effect on plasma lipid levels, and some studies showed that they had breast cancer suppression effect. One of the biomarkers of breast cancer risk is the ratio of urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE(1)) to 16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16alpha-OHE(1)). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) supplementation on blood lipids, estrogen metabolism and oxidative stress in vegetarians. DESIGN: Single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. INTERVENTIONS: Twenty-seven postmenopausal vegetarian women were recruited. After a 2-week run-in period with 6 g placebo corn oil, the subjects were subsequently randomized to receive either 6 g corn oil (n=13) or 6 g DHA-rich algae oil (2.14 g of DHA/day) (n=14) for 6 weeks. Two subjects in corn oil group withdrew before completion. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Plasma lipids, urinary 2-OHE(1) and 16alpha-OHE(1), urinary F(2)-isoprostanes and plasma alpha-tocopherol. RESULTS: Plasma LDL-DHA and EPA level increased significantly by DHA supplementation. DHA decreased plasma cholesterol (C) levels (P=0.04), but did not influence the levels of plasma TG, LDL-C and HDL-C, alpha-tocopherol, urinary F(2)-isoprostanes, 2-OHE(1), 16alpha-OHE(1) and ratio of 2-OHE(1) to 16alpha-OHE(1) as compared to corn oil. CONCLUSION: DHA supplementation at a dose of 2.14 g/day for 42 days decreases plasma cholesterol but neither does it show beneficial effects on estrogen metabolism, nor does it induce deleterious effects on the observed in vivo antioxidant or oxidative stress marker in postmenopausal vegetarian women. SPONSORSHIP: A grant (# DOH89-TD-1062) from Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Taiwan. 

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