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2005

2005년 논문->현재 2005년 저널 전체를 번역중

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(2005). "Are you getting enough of this vitamin? If you're a vegetarian or over age 60, you need to be concerned about getting enough vitamin B12." Harv Health Lett 30(10): 1-2. ->현재 번역중

               

 

Agte, V., et al. (2005). "Apparent absorption of eight micronutrients and phytic acid from vegetarian meals in ileostomized human volunteers." Nutrition 21(6): 678-685.->현재 번역중

                OBJECTIVES: Apparent absorption of eight micronutrients and degradation of phytic acid were studied in human subjects who underwent ileostomy. The prominent factors affecting micronutrient absorption from vegetarian Indian meals (n = 11) were identified. METHODS: Levels of beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, riboflavin, and thiamine in food and ileostomy contents were estimated by spectrophotometry and spectrofluorometry. Contents of zinc, iron, copper, and manganese were estimated by atomic absorption spectrometry and that of phytic acid by gradient elution ion exchange chromatography. Statistical analyses were done with SPSS 10.0. RESULTS: Absorption of beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, riboflavin, and thiamine was 63% to 75.6%. There was a negative non-significant trend in values of beta-carotene absorption with increased intake of beta-carotene (r = - 0.51, P > 0.1) and iron (r = -0.67, P = 0.1) but a positive significant trend with riboflavin intakes (r = 0.84, P = 0.018). Percentage of absorption of ascorbic acid showed weak positive associations with intakes of riboflavin (r = 0.71) and ascorbic acid (r = 0.5). Percentage of absorption of ascorbic acid was positively correlated with percentage of absorption of beta-carotene (r = 0.80, P < 0.05), iron, and riboflavin (r = 0.64, P = 0.086), indicating some common influencing factors. Percentages of absorption for zinc (20.2), iron (9.9), and copper (17.6) was comparable with those reported for soy protein-based, high phytate diets. Pattern of phytic acid in the meals and output indicated partial degradation and absorption (34%). CONCLUSIONS: For vegetarian Indian meals, apparent absorptions of beta-carotene and ascorbic acid were 76% and 73.5% and of riboflavin and thiamine was 63%. Zinc, copper, and iron showed a lower absorption (10% to 20%).

 

Bach Kristensen, M., et al. (2005). "Pork meat increases iron absorption from a 5-day fully controlled diet when compared to a vegetarian diet with similar vitamin C and phytic acid content." Br J Nutr 94(1): 78-83.->현재 번역중

               Meat increases absorption of non-haem iron in single-meal studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate, over a 5 d period, the potential increasing effect of consumption of pork meat in a whole diet on the fractional absorption of non-haem iron and the total absorption of iron, when compared to a vegetarian diet. A randomised cross-over design with 3 x 5 d whole-diet periods with diets containing Danish-produced meat, Polish-produced meat or a vegetarian diet was conducted. Nineteen healthy female subjects completed the study. All main meals in the meat diets contained 60 g of pork meat and all diets had high phytic acid content (1250 mumol/d). All main meals were extrinsically labelled with the radioactive isotope (59)Fe and absorption of iron was measured in a whole body counter. The non-haem iron absorption from the Danish meat diet was significantly higher compared to the vegetarian diet (P=0.031). The mean fractional absorption of non-haem iron was 7.9 (se1.1), 6.8 (se 1.0) and 5.3 (se 0.6) % for the Danish and Polish meat diets and vegetarian diet, respectively. Total absorption of iron was higher for both meat diets compared to the vegetarian diet (Danish meat diet: P=0.006, Polish meat diet: P=0.003). The absorption ratios of the present study were well in accordance with absorption ratios estimated using algorithms on iron bioavailability. Neither the meat diets nor the vegetarian diets fulfilled the estimated daily requirements of absorbed iron in spite of a meat intake of 180 g/d in the meat diets.

 

Berkow, S. E. and N. D. Barnard (2005). "Blood pressure regulation and vegetarian diets." Nutr Rev 63(1): 1-8.->현재 번역중

                Hypertension affects approximately 50 million individuals in the United States and approximately 1 billion worldwide. Although heredity plays a role in blood pressure variability, diet and lifestyle exert considerable influence in blood pressure regulation. This report reviews the evidence of the relationship between a vegetarian diet and blood pressure regulation and presents data as to the putative mechanisms of action.

 

Chen, Y. C., et al. (2005). "Diet, vegetarian food and prostate carcinoma among men in Taiwan." Br J Cancer 93(9): 1057-1061.->현재 번역중

                In a case-control study in a veterans hospital in Taiwan, we compared 237 histology-confirmed prostate carcinoma cases with 481 controls, frequency matched by age, for their consumption of vegetarian food, namely soybean products, rice, wheat protein and other vegetables. The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed a significant association with such food (odds ratio (OR)=0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.47, 0.94). This beneficial effect presented for men with body mass index (BMI) < or =25 kg m(-2) (OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.32, 0.76) but not for men with greater BMI. The OR of prostate carcinoma for men with BMI < or =25 kg m(-2) was 1.74 (95% CI=1.21, 2.51), compared with men with higher BMI (>25 kg m(-2)). Other significant risk factors associated with the disease included higher income (OR=2.40, 95% CI=1.07, 5.42), physical activity (OR=1.75, 95% CI=1.08, 2.83), being married (OR=2.49, 95% CI=1.40, 4.43) and coffee consumption (OR=1.88, 95% CI=1.07, 3.30). Stratified analysis also showed that the consumption of fish/shellfish had an adverse association for men with higher BMI. This study suggests that the intake of the low fat local vegetarian food has a protective effect against prostate carcinoma for thin men in this study population.

 

Fontana, L., et al. (2005). "Low bone mass in subjects on a long-term raw vegetarian diet." Arch Intern Med 165(6): 684-689.->현재 번역중

                BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding the health effects of a raw food (RF) vegetarian diet. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study on 18 volunteers (mean +/- SD age, 54.2 +/- 11.5 years; male/female ratio, 11:7) on a RF vegetarian diet for a mean of 3.6 years and a comparison age- and sex-matched group eating typical American diets. We measured body composition, bone mineral content and density, bone turnover markers (C-telopeptide of type I collagen and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase), C-reactive protein, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, insulin-like growth factor 1, and leptin in serum. RESULTS: The RF vegetarians had a mean +/- SD body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) of 20.5 +/- 2.3, compared with 25.4 +/- 3.3 in the control subjects. The mean bone mineral content and density of the lumbar spine (P= .003 and P<.001, respectively) and hip (P = .01 and P<.001, respectively) were lower in the RF group than in the control group. Serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels were similar between the groups, while the mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was higher in the RF group than in the control group (P<.001). The mean serum C-reactive protein (P = .03), insulin-like growth factor 1 (P = .002), and leptin (P = .005) were lower in the RF group. CONCLUSION: A RF vegetarian diet is associated with low bone mass at clinically important skeletal regions but is without evidence of increased bone turnover or impaired vitamin D status.

 

Fox, M. W. (2005). "More on vegetarian/vegan cat foods." J Am Vet Med Assoc 226(7): 1047; author reply 1047-1048.->현재 번역중

               

Geisel, J., et al. (2005). "The vegetarian lifestyle and DNA methylation." Clin Chem Lab Med 43(10): 1164-1169.->현재 번역중

                Vegetarians have a lower intake of vitamin B12 than omnivores do. Vitamin B12 deficiency (holotranscobalamin II <35 pmol/L or methylmalonic acid >271 nmol/L) was found in 58% of 71 vegetarians studied. Higher homocysteine levels (>12 micromol/L) found in 45% indicate disturbed remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. The methylation of DNA is strongly linked to homocysteine metabolism. Since DNA methylation is an important epigenetic factor in the regulation of gene expression, alteration of the methylation pattern has been associated with aging, cancer, atherosclerosis and other diseases. Three observations indicate that DNA methylation could be diminished by a vegetarian lifestyle. The vegetarian diet has a low content of methionine, remethylation of homocysteine is reduced by vitamin B12 deficiency and elevated homocysteine levels can induce the generation of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), a potent inhibitor of methyltransferases. In our study we observed a significant correlation between SAH and whole-genome methylation (r=-0.36, p<0.01). This observation underlines the role of SAH as a potent inhibitor of methyltransferases. The methylation status was not correlated with homocysteine or S-adenosylemethionine (SAM). These results indicate that the degree of methylation does not depend on the supply of methyl groups and that the reverse generation of SAH has no influence. In addition to whole-genome methylation, the specific promoter methylation of the p66Shc gene was studied. However, the latter did not correlate with SAH, SAM or homocysteine. Obviously, the promoter methylation of the p66Shc gene is controlled in a specific way, without following the general regulating influence of SAH. In conclusion, an inhibitory effect of SAH on whole-genome methylation was found, but from our data no interaction between vegetarian lifestyle and DNA methylation could be determined.

 

Greene-Finestone, L. S., et al. (2005). "Dietary intake among young adolescents in Ontario: associations with vegetarian status and attitude toward health." Prev Med 40(1): 105-111.

->현재 번역중

                BACKGROUND: This study aimed to describe the dietary intakes of adolescent vegetarians and omnivores and determine if, and how, attitude toward personal health related to food consumption. METHODS: Among grade 9 students in Ontario, Canada (n = 630), vegetarian status and estimated consumption of foods and food groups were determined by food frequency questionnaire. Personal health was self-categorized as very important (the "health conscious") or somewhat/not important (the "non-health conscious"). RESULTS: The prevalence of vegetarianism was 6.5% (CI = 4.6-8.4%) among females and 1.0% (CI = 0.2-1.8%) among males. Health-conscious omnivores consumed more grain, vegetables and fruit, and milk product than non-health-conscious omnivores (P < 0.05). Health-conscious vegetarians ingested more grain products, vegetables and fruit, and meat and alternatives than non-health-conscious vegetarians (P < 0.05). Among non-health-conscious vegetarians, none consumed two daily servings of meat and alternatives compared to 60.5% of non-health-conscious omnivores (P < 0.001). Among health-conscious vegetarians, milk product consumption was lower than that of health-conscious omnivores (P = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Large proportions of both vegetarian and omnivore adolescents consumed suboptimal diets. Health consciousness had value as an indicator of dietary adequacy and may be useful as a rudimentary screen for problematic dietary consumption patterns.

 

Knight, A. (2005). "In defense of vegetarian cat food." J Am Vet Med Assoc 226(4): 512-513; author reply 513-514.->현재 번역중

               

Kordella, T. (2005). "Meat-free and doing fine. When Beverly Mack, RD, decided to become a vegetarian, she knew it would take some time. She also knew it was for life." Diabetes Forecast 58(10): 52-53.->현재 번역중

               

Leitzmann, C. (2005). "Vegetarian diets: what are the advantages?" Forum Nutr(57): 147-156.->현재 번역중

                A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that wholesome vegetarian diets offer distinct advantages compared to diets containing meat and other foods of animal origin. The benefits arise from lower intakes of saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein as well as higher intakes of complex carbohydrates, dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C and E, carotenoids and other phytochemicals. Since vegetarians consume widely divergent diets, a differentiation between various types of vegetarian diets is necessary. Indeed, many contradictions and misunderstandings concerning vegetarianism are due to scientific data from studies without this differentiation. In the past, vegetarian diets have been described as being deficient in several nutrients including protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B12 and A, n-3 fatty acids and iodine. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the observed deficiencies are usually due to poor meal planning. Well-balanced vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women, the elderly and competitive athletes. In most cases, vegetarian diets are beneficial in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, renal disease and dementia, as well as diverticular disease, gallstones and rheumatoid arthritis. The reasons for choosing a vegetarian diet often go beyond health and well-being and include among others economical, ecological and social concerns. The influences of these aspects of vegetarian diets are the subject of the new field of nutritional ecology that is concerned with sustainable life styles and human development.

 

Liesegang, A., et al. (2005). "Influence of phytase added to a vegetarian diet on bone metabolism in pregnant and lactating sows." J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 89(3-6): 120-128.->현재 번역중

                The purpose of the study was to find out if the supplementation of phytase to a diet of gestating and lactating sows has any effects on performance and bone parameters of the animals. Forty primiparous gilts were assigned into four groups: group A with phytase [4.2 g total phosphorus (P)/kg (gestation) and 4.5 g total P/kg (lactation)], group B without phytase (with phytase supplementation in diet for rearing) and same P content as group A, group C without phytase and higher P contents [5.0 g total P/kg (gestation) and 5.5 g total P/kg (lactation)] and group D with the same diet as group B (no phytase during the rearing). A 6-phytase was used in this trial (750 FTU/kg diet). The four diets were fed during gestation and lactation. Faeces were collected to determine apparent digestibility of minerals. Blood samples were taken to analyse minerals and bone markers. After weaning the sows were slaughtered and the bones of one hind leg were prepared to measure bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) of the tibia. Bone ash and mineral content of the phalanx III were determined. Mean P concentrations in serum decreased during gestation and lactation. But there were no significant differences between the groups. Bone formation marker bone-specific alkaline phosphatase decreased at the beginning of lactation whereas bone resorption marker serum crosslaps increased. The BMD and BMC of the tibia were slightly higher in the groups fed higher concentrations of P and phytase. The ash and mineral contents of the phalanx were the highest for the group fed the highest concentration of P. The apparent digestibility of P increased during gestation mostly in group A (57%--> 69%). In conclusion, high P content and addition of phytase to the diet induced a slightly higher ash content of the bones. It is of high importance, that sows during gestation absorb enough P, to avoid lamenesses and sudden fractures. As not many studies with phytase have been performed during gestation and lactation in sows yet, we can recommend, that phytase as supplement can be used to keep P in the diet at a lower level without negative consequences for bone health.

 

Lukaszuk, J. M., et al. (2005). "Effect of a defined lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and oral creatine monohydrate supplementation on plasma creatine concentration." J Strength Cond Res 19(4): 735-740.->현재 번역중

                This study examined the effects that preceding creatine supplementation with a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet would have on plasma creatine concentration. Twenty-six healthy moderately fit omnivorous men were assigned to either a 26-day lacto-ovo-vegetarian (LOV; n = 12) or omnivorous (Omni; n = 14) diet. On day 22, subjects were also assigned in a double-blind manner either creatine monohydrate (CM; 0.3 g.kg(-1).day(-1) + 20 g Polycose) or an equivalent dose of placebo (PL) for 5 days. Blood samples were taken on days 1, 22 and 27. Consuming a LOV diet for 21 days was effective in reducing plasma creatine concentration (p < 0.01) in the LOV group. Regardless of diet, the CM group showed an increase in plasma creatine concentrations from day 22 to 27, whereas the PL group's levels remained the same (p < 0.05). Although the LOV diet caused a deprivation effect in plasma creatine concentration relative to the Omni diet, concurrent supplementation with creatine resulted in no difference in plasma creatine concentrations between the LOV and Omni diet groups. Dietary advice should be provided to LOV athletes that supplementation with creatine may help to increase their muscle stores of creatine, and thus their ATP resynthesis capabilities, to levels similar to those of omnivores.

 

Medkova, I. L., et al. (2005). "[The treatment of coronary heart disease by beta-adrenoblockers or tiazide diuretics preparation in combination with vegetarian diet]." Vopr Pitan 74(3): 39-41.->현재 번역중

                Work make on 84 patients with coronare heart diseases were divided into two groups, equal quantity. The first groups were given athenolol (50 mg daily), the second--hypotiazide (25 mg daily). In every groupspart patients received an antiatherogenic lactoovovegetetarian diet, part--an standard antiatherogenic diet 10c. Time observation--24 daily. By the end of the treatment period with athenolol in backoground the vegetarian diet the level of total cholesterol decreased by 16%, low-density lipoproteins cholesterol decreased by 18%. In groups patients received an standard antiatherogenic diet these parameters practically did'nt change. In the vegetarian group the atherogenic coefficient (KA) decreased by 31%., while in the patients on standard antiatherogenic diet KA showed only a tendency for decreasing. By the end to the treatment period with hypotiazide the slight decrease in total cholesterol, KA levels and a slight increase in HDL cholesterol were observed only the vegetarian group.

 

Morad, M., et al. (2005). "Vitamin B12 deficiency in persons with intellectual disability in a vegetarian residential care community." ScientificWorldJournal 5: 58-61.->현재 번역중

                The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency among intellectually disabled persons in a vegetarian remedial community in Israel. In this community, 47 individuals with intellectual disability (ID) live in 7 enlarged families in a kibbutz style agricultural setting. These 47 individuals and 17 of their caregivers were screened for vitamin B12 deficiency. There were 25.5% of the disabled vs. 11.8% of the caregivers found to have levels of vitamin B12 lower than 157 pg/ml. It is concluded that persons with ID in this vegetarian residential care community seemed to be at a higher risk for vitamin B12 deficiency.

 

Nikitiuk, D. B., et al. (2005). "[The influence of vegetarian nutrition on the structure of mucosa in human colon]." Vopr Pitan 74(1): 14-16.->현재 번역중

                Structural and functional peculiarities of digestive tract's wall depending from the character of nutrition (vegetarian or mixed diets) are interpreted in morphology. Proper facts and results of investigations of other authors about morphological structure of tunica mucosa colonic according of type of nutrition are discussed.

 

Reghu, A., et al. (2005). "Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as oedema in infants of vegetarian mothers." Eur J Pediatr 164(4): 257-258.->현재 번역중

               

Rosell, M. S., et al. (2005). "Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma in British meat-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men." Am J Clin Nutr 82(2): 327-334.->현재 번역중

                BACKGROUND: Plasma concentrations of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are lower in vegetarians and in vegans than in omnivores. No data are available on whether these concentrations differ between long- and short-term vegetarians and vegans. OBJECTIVES: We compared plasma fatty acid composition in meat-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans and examined whether the proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3; DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA) were related to the subjects' duration of adherence to their diets or to the proportions of plasma linoleic acid (18:2n-6; LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3; ALA). DESIGN: The present cross-sectional study included 196 meat-eating, 231 vegetarian, and 232 vegan men in the United Kingdom. Information on anthropometry, diet, and smoking habits was obtained through a questionnaire. Total fatty acid composition in plasma was measured. RESULTS: The proportions of plasma EPA and DHA were lower in the vegetarians and in the vegans than in the meat-eaters, whereas only small differences were seen for DPA. Plasma EPA, DPA, and DHA proportions were not significantly associated with the duration of time since the subjects became vegetarian or vegan, which ranged from <1 y to >20 y. In the vegetarians and the vegans, plasma DHA was inversely correlated with plasma LA. CONCLUSIONS: The proportions of plasma long-chain n-3 fatty acids were not significantly affected by the duration of adherence to a vegetarian or vegan diet. This finding suggests that when animal foods are wholly excluded from the diet, the endogenous production of EPA and DHA results in low but stable plasma concentrations of these fatty acids.

 

Skoldstam, L., et al. (2005). "Weight reduction is not a major reason for improvement in rheumatoid arthritis from lacto-vegetarian, vegan or Mediterranean diets." Nutr J 4: 15.->현재 번역중

                OBJECTIVES: Several investigators have reported that clinical improvements of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), from participating in therapeutic diet intervention studies, have been accompanied by loss of body weight. This has raised the question whether weight reduction per se can improve RA. In order to test this hypothesis, three previously conducted diet intervention studies, comprising 95 patients with RA, were pooled. Together with Age, Gender, and Disease Duration, change during the test period in body weight, characterised dichotomously as reduction or no reduction (dichoDeltaBody Weight), as well as Diet (dichotomously as ordinary diet or test diet), were the independent variables. Dependent variables were the difference (Delta) from baseline to conclusion of the study in five different disease outcome measures. DeltaESR and DeltaPain Score were both characterised numerically and dichotomously (improvement or no improvement). DeltaAcute Phase Response, DeltaPhysical Function, and DeltaTender Joint Count were characterised dichotomously only. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyse associations between the independent and the disease outcome variables. RESULTS: Statistically significant correlations were found between Diet and three disease outcome variables i.e. DeltaAcute-Phase Response, DeltaPain Score, and DeltaPhysical Function. Delta Body Weight was univariately only correlated to DeltaAcute-Phase Response but not significant when diet was taken into account. CONCLUSION: Body weight reduction did not significantly contribute to the improvement in rheumatoid arthritis when eating lacto-vegetarian, vegan or Mediterranean diets.

 

Su, T. C., et al. (2006). "Homocysteine, circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule and carotid atherosclerosis in postmenopausal vegetarian women and omnivores." Atherosclerosis 184(2): 356-362.->현재 번역중

                Since the adoption of vegetarian diets as a healthy lifestyle has become popular, the cardiovascular effects of long-term vegetarianism need to be explored. The present study aimed to compare the presence and severity of carotid atherosclerosis (CA), and the blood levels of Vitamin B12, homocysteine (Hcy) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) between 57 healthy postmenopausal vegetarians and 61 age-matched omnivores. Carotid atherosclerosis, as measured by ultrasound, was found to be of no significant difference between the two groups. Yet, fasting blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and Vitamin B12 were significantly lower, while Hcy and sVCAM-1 were higher in the vegetarians as comparing with the omnivores. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the level of Vitamin B12 was negatively associated with the level of Hcy. Vegetarianism itself and Hcy level were significantly associated with sVCAM-1 level in univariate analysis; however, after adjustment for covariates, we identified age but not vegetarianism as the determinant of sVCAM-1 level. Multiple linear regression analysis identified age and systolic blood pressure, but not vegetarianism, as determinants of common carotid artery IMT. In conclusion, there was no significant difference in CA between apparently healthy postmenopausal vegetarians and omnivores. The findings of elevated Hcy in vegetarians indicate the importance of prevention of Vitamin B12 deficiency.

 

Vadodaria, S., et al. (2005). "Mastering ear cartilage sculpture: the vegetarian option." Plast Reconstr Surg 116(7): 2043-2044.->현재 번역중

               

Waslaski, J. and J. Boucher (2005). "Beyond bean sprouts. Vegetarianism today. Vegetarian eating can help protect your heart and cut your risk of several diseases--and it's more flexible than you might think." Diabetes Forecast 58(10): 50-52, 54.->현재 번역중

               

Welch, A., et al. (2005). "Calcaneum broadband ultrasound attenuation relates to vegetarian and omnivorous diets differently in men and women: an observation from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer in Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk) population study." Osteoporos Int 16(6): 590-596.->현재 번역중

                Vegetarian diets have been suggested to be beneficial for bone health due to increased consumption of plant foods, including soya, or reduced consumption of meat. However, meat may also be beneficial for bone health. The evidence relating diet to bone health is based largely on studies of women, often in those at high risk of osteoporosis. Few studies have investigated dietary inter-relationships in men as well as women from general populations. We examined broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) of the calcaneum, using a CUBA clinical instrument, in 6,369 men and 5,379 postmenopausal women. The population was divided into four groups according to vegetarian status and frequency of soya consumption, which was defined by response to a food frequency questionnaire that estimates frequency of consumption of food types over the year prior to completion. Regular soya consumers were defined as those who ate soya products with a frequency of between once a day and once a week. Calcaneum BUA in vegetarian men was significantly lower than omnivores by approximately 6% (5 dB/MHz) and was 15% (13.6 dB/MHz) lower in those who were also regular soya consumers. This difference remained after adjustment for age, height, weight, smoking habit, physical activity, selected foods and nutrients and exclusion of those with a prior history of osteoporosis, fractures or cancer. Calcaneum BUA in omnivorous men with regular soya consumption was not lower than the remaining population. In women, there were no significant differences by usual dietary pattern. This surprising finding indicates that regular soya intake is not associated with better bone indices in vegetarian men. The difference in BUA was not explained by the known common covariates; however, it is possible that other aspects of lifestyle associated with these eating behaviors might explain this observation. Plausible mechanisms exist for our findings; soya contains phytoestrogens, likened to naturally occurring estrogens, and meat has been shown to influence levels of IGF-1 and sex hormone binding globulin, which may be related to bone health. Our findings emphasize the need for further research and investigation into dietary inter-relationships and bone health and the effects of vegetarian status, including consumption of soya-based foods, in men as well as women. 

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