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2004

2004년 논문

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Ambroszkiewicz, J., et al. (2004). "Low serum leptin concentration in vegetarian prepubertal children." Rocz Akad Med Bialymst 49: 103-105.

                PURPOSE: Vegetarian diet may play a positive role in reducing risk of several chronic diseases such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and some types of cancer. There are different vegetarian dietary patterns, some of which are nutritionally adequate for children, whereas other may lack some essential nutrients. Leptin, a hormone from adipose tissue plays a key role in the control of body fat stores and energy expenditure. Higher leptin levels were observed in obese subjects and lower in anorectic patients. Recent studies support that diet may be a factor which influences leptin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of leptin, lipids and apolipoproteins in prepubertal children with two different nutritional habits: vegetarian and omnivorous diet. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We examined 22 vegetarians and 13 omnivores in age 2-10 years. Serum leptin concentration was determined by immunoenzyme assay (ELISA) and serum lipids were measured by enzymatic and immunoturbidimetric methods. RESULTS: Average daily dietary energy intake and the percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates were similar for both groups of children. We observed that in vegetarian diet there is a high rate of fiber nearly twice as high as in omnivorous diet. Vegetarians had lower total cholesterol and HDL- and LDL-cholesterol concentrations than children on traditional mixed diet. There is no significant differences in triglyceride concentration between studied groups. The apolipoproteins levels in vegetarian children were significantly below that of omnivores. The serum concentration of leptin was lower in vegetarians (3.0 +/- 1.1 ng/mL) than in nonvegetarians (5.1 +/- 2.0 ng/mL) (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that vegetarian diet may be accompanied by lower serum leptin concentration. Further studies on large group of children are needed for understanding this problem better.

 

Barr, S. I. and C. A. Rideout (2004). "Nutritional considerations for vegetarian athletes." Nutrition 20(7-8): 696-703.

                With the growing interest in the potential health benefits of plant-based diets, it is relevant to consider whether vegetarian dietary practices could influence athletic performance. Accordingly, this review examines whether nutrients that may differ between vegetarian and omnivorous diets could affect physical performance. We also describe recent studies that attempt to assess the effects of a vegetarian diet on performance and comment on other nutritional aspects of vegetarianism of relevance to athletes. Although well-controlled long-term studies assessing the effects of vegetarian diets on athletes have not been conducted, the following observations can be made: 1) well-planned, appropriately supplemented vegetarian diets appear to effectively support athletic performance; 2) provided protein intakes are adequate to meet needs for total nitrogen and the essential amino acids, plant and animal protein sources appear to provide equivalent support to athletic training and performance; 3) vegetarians (particularly women) are at increased risk for non-anemic iron deficiency, which may limit endurance performance; and 4) as a group, vegetarians have lower mean muscle creatine concentrations than do omnivores, and this may affect supramaximal exercise performance. Because their initial muscle creatine concentrations are lower, vegetarians are likely to experience greater performance increments after creatine loading in activities that rely on the adenosine triphosphate/phosphocreatine system. 5) Coaches and trainers should be aware that some athletes may adopt a vegetarian diet as a strategy for weight control. Accordingly, the possibility of a disordered eating pattern should be investigated if a vegetarian diet is accompanied by unwarranted weight loss.

 

Cheng, P. J., et al. (2004). "Elevated maternal midtrimester serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin levels in vegetarian pregnancies that cause increased false-positive Down syndrome screening results." Am J Obstet Gynecol 190(2): 442-447.

                OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine whether midtrimester maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and alpha-fetoprotein levels for Down syndrome screening differed in vegetarian pregnancies and omnivore pregnancies and to evaluate whether maternal serum vitamin B(12) concentration affected these maker levels. STUDY DESIGN: Ninety-eight vegetarian and 122 omnivore singleton pregnancies were studied. Reference levels of free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and alpha-fetoprotein were based on a population of 6312 singleton euploid pregnancies that had been surveyed previously. Serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and alpha-fetoprotein levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay or radioimmunoassay. Multiples of the median values were calculated to determine whether different diet habits affected serum biomarker levels. Maternal serum vitamin B(12) levels were determined with radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: The free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin multiples of the median values were elevated significantly in the vegetarian pregnancies group (1.28 multiples of the median) compared with that of the reference population (1.00 multiples of the median) (P<.001). A negative association between the serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin multiples of the median values and the concentration of maternal serum vitamin B(12) was observed in the vegetarian pregnancies. No correlation was found between the alpha-fetoprotein multiples of the median values and the maternal serum vitamin B(12) concentration. CONCLUSION: The current data showed that the midtrimester maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin levels increased in vegetarian pregnancies and led to an elevated false-positive rate in screening for Down syndrome compared with pregnant women with regular diet and resulted in unnecessary invasive procedures. It is necessary to establish vegetarian pregnancy alpha-fetoprotein and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin reference levels to correct increased false-positive screening results.

 

Chiplonkar, S. A., et al. (2004). "Micronutrient deficiencies as predisposing factors for hypertension in lacto-vegetarian Indian adults." J Am Coll Nutr 23(3): 239-247.

                OBJECTIVE: With the increasing knowledge about the antioxidant potential of many micronutrients such as zinc and vitamin C, their roles in oxidative stress related health disorders have been postulated. This study therefore investigated low micronutrient status as a predisposing factor for hypertension in a traditionally lacto-vegetarian population like Indians. METHODS: Micronutrient profile was assessed in 109 hypertensives with age-gender-socio-economic status matched 115 healthy normotensives (30-58 years of age). Food intakes were estimated through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Nutrient intakes were then evaluated by previous estimates of cooked foods from our laboratory. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), age, weight, height, waist and hip circumference, occupation, physical activity, smoking habits were recorded. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for hemoglobin, serum level of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, ceruloplasmin, plasma level of ascorbic acid, folic acid, retinol, erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient (EGRAC) and erythrocyte membrane zinc. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between protein, fat intakes of normal and hypertensive individuals, though intakes of men were higher than those of women (p < 0.05). Intakes of omega-6 fatty acids were higher (p = 0.08) and omega-3 fatty acids were lower in hypertensive men than normotensive men (p = 0.04). Gender differences were also significant for micronutrient intakes except vitamin C and beta-carotene. Intakes of potassium, copper, folic acid and vitamin C were significantly lower in hypertensive individuals than in normotenisves. No significant association was found between occupation or activity level and hypertension (p > 0.2) in these subjects. Conditional logistic regression analysis indicated that intakes of vitamin C, folic acid and zinc were associated with 18% (OR = 1.18, 95% CI:1.08, 1.26), 51% (OR = 1.51, 95% CI 0.94, 2.1) higher odds for hypertension, and 3% lower odds for hypertension (OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.92, 1.01), respectively. Mean plasma vitamin C and folic acid were significantly higher (p < 0.01), and serum ceruloplasmin and erythrocyte membrane zinc were marginally higher (p = 0.07) in normal than hypertensive subjects. In multivariate linear regression analyses, plasma vitamin C, serum ceruloplasmin and erythrocyte membrane zinc were negatively associated with SBP (p = 0.00001) and plasma vitamin C was negatively associated with DBP (p = 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Low dietary intakes of vitamin C, folic acid and zinc emerged as the possible risk factors for hypertension. Further, lower levels of plasma vitamin C, erythrocyte membrane zinc and ceruloplasmin were found to be the putative intermediary biomarkers in pathogenesis of hypertension.

 

Ciardella, A. P., et al. (2004). "Coats' disease in a vegetarian female." Br J Ophthalmol 88(7): 970-971.

               

Dorea, J. G. (2004). "Vegetarian diets and exposure to organochlorine pollutants, lead, and mercury." Am J Clin Nutr 80(1): 237-238.

               

Hoek, A. C., et al. (2004). "Food-related lifestyle and health attitudes of Dutch vegetarians, non-vegetarian consumers of meat substitutes, and meat consumers." Appetite 42(3): 265-272.

                The aim was to investigate socio-demographic characteristics, and attitudes to food and health of vegetarians, non-vegetarian consumers of meat substitutes, and meat consumers in The Netherlands. The sample used for this study (participants > or =18 years) was taken from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey, 1997/1998. Vegetarians (n = 63) and consumers of meat substitutes (n = 39) had similar socio-demographic profiles: higher education levels, higher social economic status, smaller households, and more urbanised residential areas, compared to meat consumers (n = 4313). Attitudes to food were assessed by the food-related lifestyle instrument. We found that vegetarians (n = 32) had more positive attitudes towards importance of product information, speciality shops, health, novelty, ecological products, social event, and social relationships than meat consumers (n = 1638). The health consciousness scale, which was used to assess attitudes to health, supported earlier findings that vegetarians are more occupied by health. Food-related lifestyle and health attitudes of meat substitute consumers (n = 17) were predominantly in-between those from vegetarians and meat consumers. The outcome of this study suggests that in strategies to promote meat substitutes for non-vegetarian consumers, the focus should not only be on health and ecological aspects of foods.

 

Kazimirova, A., et al. (2004). "Does a vegetarian diet influence genomic stability?" Eur J Nutr 43(1): 32-38.

                BACKGROUND: The vegetarian lifestyle is supposedly healthy, and differences between vegetarians and non-vegetarians in biomarkers related to diseases such as cancer might be expected. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the possible role of different diets in maintaining genomic stability. METHODS: The vegetarian group, consisting of 24 volunteers (13 women and 11 men), were matched for age and sex with 24 volunteers (12 women and 12 men) with a traditional dietary habit. Among vegetarians there were 13 lacto-ovo-vegetarians (8 women, 5 men) with average length of vegetarian diet 10.8 years (ranging from 5 to 26) and 11 lacto-vegetarians (5 women, 6 men) with average length of vegetarian diet 8.2 years (ranging from 3 to15). All volunteers were nonsmokers, non-consumers of alcohol and had similar education and patterns of physical activity. Chromosome aberrations, micronuclei and DNA damage (strand breaks, oxidised bases and H(2)O(2)-sensitivity) were examined in peripheral blood lymphocytes of vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Plasma antioxidant status was assessed with the FRAP assay. RESULTS: We did not find any differences in percentage of cells with chromosome aberrations or in the frequency of micronuclei between vegetarians and non-vegetarians or between lacto-ovo and lacto-vegetarians. There was no statistically significant difference in total antioxidant capacity between the groups. The group with traditional dietary habits had significantly higher levels of oxidative DNA damage (strand breaks and oxidised purines, P = 0.005) compared with vegetarians. A significant positive correlation between age and oxidative DNA damage (net FPG-sensitive sites) was found in non-vegetarians, while there was an opposite trend towards a negative association in vegetarians. On the other hand chromosome aberrations correlated with age in vegetarians (r = 0.48, P = 0.017) but not in non-vegetarians. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that a vegetarian diet can lead to a slight decrease in oxidative DNA damage in lymphocytes, but other markers of genetic stability are not affected. The lowest level of DNA damage was found in lymphocytes of lactovegetarians, (especially oxidised pyrimidines, P = 0.0017), suggesting that this diet provides some protection against oxidative stress.

 

Koebnick, C., et al. (2004). "Long-term ovo-lacto vegetarian diet impairs vitamin B-12 status in pregnant women." J Nutr 134(12): 3319-3326.

                A well-planned vegetarian diet has been stated to be adequate during pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to compare serum vitamin B-12 and homocysteine concentrations in pregnant women (n = 109) consuming vegetarian and Western diets and to evaluate the adequacy of current dietary reference intakes of vitamin B-12 for these women. Pregnant women adhering to vegetarian diets for at least 3 y, with subgroups of ovo-lacto vegetarians (OLVs; n = 27), low-meat eaters (LME, n = 43), and women eating an average Western diet (control group, n = 39), were recruited. Dietary vitamin B-12 intake, serum vitamin B-12, and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations were measured in wk 9-12, 20-22, and 36-38 of pregnancy. During pregnancy serum vitamin B-12 concentrations of ovo-lacto vegetarians (P < 0.001) and low-meat eaters (P = 0.050) were lower than those of the control group. We observed the combination of low serum vitamin B-12 concentrations and elevated plasma tHcy in 22% of ovo-lacto vegetarians, in 10% of low-meat eaters, and in 3% of controls (P = 0.003). In OLVs, serum vitamin B-12 predicted 60% of the plasma tHcy variation (P < 0.001), but in LMEs and controls only <10% (NS). Serum vitamin B-12 concentrations increased and plasma tHcy decreased sharply with increasing dietary intake of vitamin B-12 toward a cutoff point of 3 mug/d. Pregnant women consuming a long-term predominantly vegetarian diet have an increased risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency. Current recommended dietary intakes urgently need reevaluation.

 

Kumar, H. D. (2004). "Management of nutritional and health needs of malnourished and vegetarian people in India." Adv Exp Med Biol 546: 311-321.

               

Kwok, T., et al. (2004). "Association between functional dental state and dietary intake of Chinese vegetarian old age home residents." Gerodontology 21(3): 161-166.

                OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between dental functional status and dietary intakes of Chinese vegetarian old age home residents. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed in a group of 76 older vegetarian Chinese women living in an old age home. Oral examination was performed by a dental surgeon. Sixty-eight of them had a 24-hour food record by direct observation, analysed by a Chinese food composition table. Nutritional status was measured by Body Mass Index (BMI), and the functional status by modified Barthel Index (BI). RESULTS: Forty-two subjects (55.3%) were edentulous; 59 subjects (77.6%) had chewing difficulties; 35 subjects (46%) had poor dental functional status defined by having five or less functional teeth unit (FTU). When compared with those older people with better dental functional status, the poor dental functional status group was more likely to have chewing difficulties, tolerate soft diet only, and be functionally dependent (BI < 15/20). Poor dental functional status was associated with lower mean daily fibre intake, but not with intakes of macronutrients and micronutrients, after adjustment by BI categories. CONCLUSION: Poor dental functional status is associated with impaired chewing and lower fibre intake in Chinese vegetarian old age home residents, but it is not associated with reduced intakes of macronutrients or micronutrients.

 

Laskowska-Klita, T., et al. (2004). "[Serum leptin concentration and some lipid parameters in vegetarian children]." Pol Merkur Lekarski 16(94): 340-343.

                Leptin, a hormone from adipose tissue, regulates feeding behavior, satiation rate, energy expenditure and also plays an important role in maturation and reproduction. Recent studies support the concept that several factors such as a diet may influence on leptin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate serum concentration of leptin and lipids status in prepubertal children aged from 2 to 10 years with two different nutritional habits: vegetarian (n = 24) and omnivorous diet (n = 20). Serum leptin concentration was determined by immunoenzymeassay (ELISA). Serum lipids (cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride) were measured by enzymatic and apolipoproteins by immunoturbidimetric methods. We noticed that in vegetarian diet there is a high rate of fiber (nearly twice as high as in omnivorous diet) and polyunsaturated acids (35% as much). In our study vegetarian children had lower total cholesterol and cholesterol in fractions HDL and LDL than meat eaters did. Also the apolipoproteins levels in vegetarian children were significantly below that of nonvegetarians. There is no differences in triglyceride concentration between the two groups of children. The mean serum leptin level in vegetarian children was significantly lower (3.1 +/- 1.2 ng/mL) as compared with the omnivores (5.6 +/- 2.1 ng/mL) (p < 0.0001).

 

Medkova, I. L., et al. (2004). "[Leveling the hyperlipidemic effect of beta-adrenoblockers by means of antiatherogenic vegetarian diet]." Klin Med (Mosk) 82(6): 58-60.

                The purpose of the study was to examine the capacities of correction of impaired lipid metabolism in patients with CHD receiving selective beta-adrenoblockers (beta-AB) by using an antiatherogenic milk-and-vegetable diet. According to the type of antiatherogenic diet, 67 patients were divided into 2 groups: 1) 42 patients were on an antiatherogenic vegetarian diet (a vegetarian group--VG) and 2) 25 patients received routine mixed diet No. 10c (a control group--CG). At the same time all the patients received similar antianginal drug therapy including the selective beta-AB atenolol in a dose of 50 mg/day. The vegetarian diet without special hypolipidemic therapy had a marked normalizing effect on the serum lipid spectrum in patients with CHD. Thus, in VG, by the end of treatment, the level of total cholesterol significantly decreased by 16% while in the controls it increased by 13%. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in VG and decreased in CG, therefore the atherogenicity coefficient considerably rose. These were true for triglycerides and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. These parameters significantly decreased in VG (by more than 30%) and increased in CG (by 16%). Among the clinical symptoms, a more pronounced decrease in blood pressure in the patients on vegetarian diet and a more significant increase in their exercise tolerance. Balanced antiatherogenic milk-and-vegetable diet in patients with coronary heart disease prevents the hyperlipidemic effect caused by the selective beta-AB atenolol and it is an agent for preventing its negative effect on lipid metabolism.

 

Phillips, F., et al. (2004). "Effect of changing to a self-selected vegetarian diet on anthropometric measurements in UK adults." J Hum Nutr Diet 17(3): 249-255.

                BACKGROUND: Vegetarians are often a little leaner compared with nonvegetarians and suffer less from obesity and its associated complications than nonvegetarians. Whether this is because of not eating meat specifically is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether changing to a self-selected vegetarian diet resulted in changes to anthropometric measurements. Design Subjects (n = 33; seven males and 26 females) who were in the earliest stages of becoming vegetarian were observed for 6 months. Data on dietary intake, using a 3-day estimated dietary diary, and body composition were obtained at baseline and after 6 months of following a self-selected vegetarian diet. RESULTS: Dietary calculations showed that on changing to a self-selected vegetarian diet, there was a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in energy intake (8.9 MJ day(-1) versus 8.1 MJ day(-1)), and in the proportion of energy from saturated fatty acids (12.9% versus 11.3%) and a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the proportion of energy from carbohydrates (44.9% versus 47.5%) and in intake of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) (1.6 g MJ(-1) versus 2.0 g MJ(-1)). Significant reductions in mid-upper arm circumference, calculated body fat, biceps and triceps skinfolds and waist and hip circumferences were observed. No reduction in body weight was observed. CONCLUSION: The findings of our study suggest that significant dietary changes, helping people to conform more closely to current dietary recommendations, occurred when people became vegetarian. In this study we did not find any significant change in body weight, but significant reductions were observed in skinfold thickness and waist : height ratio which imply that on changing to a self-selected vegetarian diet, the subjects became leaner.

 

Piccoli, G. B., et al. (2004). "Low-protein vegetarian diet with alpha-chetoanalogues prior to pre-emptive pancreas-kidney transplantation." Rev Diabet Stud 1(2): 95-102.

                BACKGROUND: Pre-emptive pancreas-kidney transplantation is increasingly considered the best therapy for irreversible chronic kidney disease (CKD) in type 1 diabetics. However, the best approach in the wait for transplantation has not yet been defined. AIM: To evaluate our experience with a low-protein (0.6 g/kg/day) vegetarian diet supplemented with alpha-chetoanalogues in type 1 diabetic patients in the wait for pancreas-kidney transplantation. METHODS: Prospective study. Information on the progression of renal disease, compliance, metabolic control, reasons for choice and for drop-out were recorded prospectively; the data for the subset of patients who underwent the diet while awaiting a pancreas-kidney graft are analysed in this report. RESULTS: From November 1998 to April 2004, 9 type 1 diabetic patients, wait-listed or performing tests for wait-listing for pancreas-kidney transplantation, started the diet. All of them were followed by nephrologists and diabetologists, in the context of integrated care. There were 4 males and 5 females; median age 38 years (range 27.9-45.5); median diabetes duration 23.8 years (range 16.6-33.1), 8/9 with widespread organ damage; median creatinine at the start of the diet: 3.2 mg/dl (1.2-7.2); 4 patients followed the diet to transplantation, 2 are presently on the diet, 2 dropped out and started dialysis after a few months, 1 started dialysis (rescue treatment). The nutritional status remained stable, glycemia control improved in 4 patients in the short term and in 2 in the long term, no hyperkalemia, acidosis or other relevant side effect was recorded. Proteinuria decreased in 5 cases, in 3 from the nephrotic range. Albumin levels remained stable; the progression rate was a loss of 0.47 ml/min of creatinine clearance per month (ranging from an increase of 0.06 to a decrease of 2.4 ml/min) during the diet period (estimated by the Cockroft-Gault formula). CONCLUSIONS: Low-protein supplemented vegetarian diets may be a useful tool to slow CKD progression whilst awaiting pancreas-kidney transplantation.

 

Schwartz-Cassell, T. (2004). "The vegetarian option: cost-effective and healthy." Contemp Longterm Care: 30, 32-33, 36.

               

Shirai, N. and H. Suzuki (2004). "Effects of Western, Vegetarian, and Japanese dietary fat model diets with or without green tea extract on the plasma lipids and glucose, and liver lipids in mice. A long-term feeding experiment." Ann Nutr Metab 48(2): 95-102.

               BACKGROUND/AIMS: The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of three model diets containing different fats, with or without a small amount of green tea extract (GTE), on plasma lipids and glucose, and liver lipids in mice. METHODS: Male mice (2 months old) fed 10% fat diets with Western (W), Vegetarian (V), and Japanese (J) fat compositions with or without 0.03% GTE for 7 months. RESULTS: The concentrations of plasma and liver total cholesterol in animals fed the W diet were not significantly different from those fed the J diet. Plasma triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations were significantly different from one another in the following order: V > J > W diet groups. GTE supplementation significantly reduced plasma and liver TG content only in V diet group. Plasma glucose (Glu) concentrations were in the following order: W > V > J diet groups, and the GTE supplementation reduced the concentration of Glu in each diet group. The ratios of plasma n-6 to n-3 fatty acids were in the following order: V > W > J diet groups, regardless of GTE supplementation. CONCLUSION: These findings show the possibility that Japanese eating habits combined with drinking green tea might be a factor in preventing the onset of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

 

Szeto, Y. T., et al. (2004). "Effects of a long-term vegetarian diet on biomarkers of antioxidant status and cardiovascular disease risk." Nutrition 20(10): 863-866.

                OBJECTIVE: We compared plasma biomarkers of antioxidant status, oxidative stress, inflammation, and risk for coronary heart disease in long-term vegetarians and age- and sex-matched omnivores. METHODS: Thirty vegetarians (mean age +/- standard deviation: 44.2 +/- 9.0 y) were recruited. The subjects had been vegetarian for 5 to 55 y (21.8 +/- 12.2 y). The control group comprised 30 adults selected by age-stratified sampling from a community health project (mean age: 44.0 +/- 9.2 y). Fasting plasma total antioxidant status (ferric-reducing antioxidant power), ascorbic acid (AA), alpha-tocopherol (total and lipid standardized), malondialdehyde, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, uric acid (UA), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured. RESULTS: Plasma AA was significantly higher in the vegetarians than in the omnivores (90.5 +/- 21.0 and 61.8 +/- 17.0 microM; P < 0.001). The vegetarians had lower concentrations of triacylglycerol, UA, and hsCRP. Plasma total and lipid-standardized alpha-tocopherol concentrations were also lower in the vegetarians: 22.0 +/- 5.9 and 27.0 +/- 7.9 microM versus 3.76 +/- 0.57 and 4.23 +/- 0.58 microM per millimoles per liter of total cholesterol plus triacylglycerol, respectively. There was a significant inverse correlation between AA and UA (r = -0.343, P < 0.01; n = 60) and between AA and hsCRP (r = -0.306, P < 0.05; n = 55). Plasma ferric-reducing antioxidant power and malondialdehyde did not differ significantly between groups; however, the contribution of AA to the total antioxidant capacity of plasma was approximately 50% greater in the vegetarians. CONCLUSIONS: A long-term vegetarian diet is associated with markedly higher fasting plasma AA concentrations and lower concentrations of TAG, UA, and hsCRP. Long-term vegetarians have a better antioxidant status and coronary heart disease risk profile than do apparently healthy omnivores. Plasma AA may act a useful marker of overall health status.

 

Walkowiak, J., et al. (2004). "Vegetarian diet alters the assessment of exocrine pancreatic function with the use of fecal tests." J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 38(2): 224-226.

               

Weiss, R., et al. (2004). "Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in an infant associated with a maternal deficiency and a strict vegetarian diet." J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 26(4): 270-271.

                The authors present a case of severe megaloblastic anemia and neurologic damage due to vitamin B12 deficiency in a 6-month-old infant. The cause of the vitamin deficiency was a maternal dietary deficiency because of a strict vegetarian diet and prolonged breast-feeding. The importance of early recognition of significant maternal vitamin B12 deficiency during pregnancy and lactation in vegetarians is emphasized so that appropriate supplementation can be given and irreversible neurologic damage in the infant prevented.

 

Weizman, Z. (2004). "Vegetarian diet and exocrine pancreatic function using fecal tests." J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 39(2): 212; author reply 212-213.

               

Welch, A., et al. (2005). "Calcaneum broadband ultrasound attenuation relates to vegetarian and omnivorous diets differently in men and women: an observation from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer in Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk) population study." Osteoporos Int 16(6): 590-596.

                Vegetarian diets have been suggested to be beneficial for bone health due to increased consumption of plant foods, including soya, or reduced consumption of meat. However, meat may also be beneficial for bone health. The evidence relating diet to bone health is based largely on studies of women, often in those at high risk of osteoporosis. Few studies have investigated dietary inter-relationships in men as well as women from general populations. We examined broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) of the calcaneum, using a CUBA clinical instrument, in 6,369 men and 5,379 postmenopausal women. The population was divided into four groups according to vegetarian status and frequency of soya consumption, which was defined by response to a food frequency questionnaire that estimates frequency of consumption of food types over the year prior to completion. Regular soya consumers were defined as those who ate soya products with a frequency of between once a day and once a week. Calcaneum BUA in vegetarian men was significantly lower than omnivores by approximately 6% (5 dB/MHz) and was 15% (13.6 dB/MHz) lower in those who were also regular soya consumers. This difference remained after adjustment for age, height, weight, smoking habit, physical activity, selected foods and nutrients and exclusion of those with a prior history of osteoporosis, fractures or cancer. Calcaneum BUA in omnivorous men with regular soya consumption was not lower than the remaining population. In women, there were no significant differences by usual dietary pattern. This surprising finding indicates that regular soya intake is not associated with better bone indices in vegetarian men. The difference in BUA was not explained by the known common covariates; however, it is possible that other aspects of lifestyle associated with these eating behaviors might explain this observation. Plausible mechanisms exist for our findings; soya contains phytoestrogens, likened to naturally occurring estrogens, and meat has been shown to influence levels of IGF-1 and sex hormone binding globulin, which may be related to bone health. Our findings emphasize the need for further research and investigation into dietary inter-relationships and bone health and the effects of vegetarian status, including consumption of soya-based foods, in men as well as women.

  

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