al-Dlaigan, Y. H., et al. (2001). "Vegetarian children and dental erosion." Int J Paediatr Dent 11(3): 184-192.
BACKGROUND: There have been recent changes in teenage lifestyle and diet. The increasing consumption of soft drinks and foods containing significant acidic components may play a role in the development of dental erosion. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this investigation were firstly to assess the prevalence of vegetarian children in a cluster random sample of 14-year-old children in Birmingham, United Kingdom. Secondly, to determine the prevalence of dental erosion in these children, and thirdly, to see if there were any differences between vegetarian and non-vegetarian children in the prevalence of dental erosion and dietary intake. DESIGN: A cluster random sample of 418 14-year-old children (209 males and 209 females) were examined from 12 different schools in Birmingham, United Kingdom; a dietary questionnaire was completed and the levels of tooth wear were recorded using a modification of the (TWI) index. All data were analysed using SPSS with t-test and Chi-square analysis. Significance was accepted at the P < 0.05 level. RESULTS: The results showed that 10% of the children were vegetarian; 52% of them had low dental erosion and 48% moderate dental erosion. Statistically there were no significant differences between vegetarian and non-vegetarian children in the prevalence of erosion; however, there were significant differences in some food and drink consumption. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that dental erosion is common in teenage children, but there were no significant differences in prevalence between vegetarian and non-vegetarian children.
Amodio, P., et al. (2001). "Vegetarian diets in hepatic encephalopathy: facts or fantasies?" Dig Liver Dis 33(6): 492-500.
Diet treatment characterized by a reduction in or a selection of food proteins is currently suggested in hepatic encephalopathy. This article is a review of the present knowledge about the characteristics and the rationale of vegetarian diets in cirrhotic patients with overt or latent encephalopathy. In addition, evidence relating diet and encephalopathy and the nutritional features and needs of cirrhotic patients is reported. Finally, the rationale of a diet based on vegetable and milk-derived proteins that may overcome the limits and the possible adverse effects of a strict vegetarian diet is presented.
Andrews, J. M., et al. (2001). "Effect of a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet on fasting small intestinal motility." Scand J Gastroenterol 36(10): 1037-1043.
BACKGROUND: Changes in diet can alter gastric and small intestinal (SI) motility. The effects of a vegetarian diet on fasting SI motility are unknown. METHODS: Manometric studies were performed in 9 lacto-ovo vegetarians (7 women) and 9 omnivores (7 women) of similar age and body mass index. On each study day, manometry was used to assess SI motility for 5 h, or 3 complete cycles of the interdigestive motor complex (IDMC). Lacto-ovo vegetarians were studied once: omnivores were studied twice, on their usual diet, and after consuming a 14-day lacto-ovo vegetarian diet. Diet diaries were kept for 5 days prior to each manometric study. Data were analysed for dietary composition and for cycle length and duration of each phase (I, II and III) of the IDMC. RESULTS: Dietary intake did not differ between chronic vegetarians and chronic omnivores apart from a trend to higher fibre intake (29 +/- 3 versus 20 +/- 3 g/day; P = 0.058). Omnivores eating a vegetarian diet showed a trend to decreased alcohol consumption (P = 0.068), but did not increase their fibre intake (20 +/- 3 versus 21 +/- 3 g/day). Neither cycle length nor duration of each IDMC phase differed between chronic vegetarians and chronic omnivores. After 14 days of a vegetarian diet, omnivores had a reduction in cycle length (128 +/- 19 versus 86 +/- 12 min; P = 0.02), with a non-significant reduction of Phase II (99 +/- 20 versus 50 +/- 8 min: P = 0.066). CONCLUSIONS: A chronic vegetarian diet has no major effect on fasting SI motility; but acute dietary change may alter the cycle length and component phases of the IDMC.
Arnold, F. and T. K. Roy (2001). "Vegetarian diets and the sex ratio at birth." Pract Midwife 4(10): 32-33.
Chiron, R., et al. (2001). "[Anemia and limping in a vegetarian adolescent]." Arch Pediatr 8(1): 62-65.
A vegan diet in the child and adolescent can induce severe bone sequelae by rickets and osteomalacia and megaloblastic anemia by cobalamin deficiency. CASE REPORT: A 15-year-old adolescent was hospitalized because of lameness and pallor. The lameness was explained by femoral epiphysiolysis caused by rickets with severe hypocalcemia. The pallor, jaundice and splenomegalia were due to cobalamin-deficiency megaloblastic anemia. A prolonged supplemental diet with calcium, vitamins D and B12 as well as orthopedic treatment stabilized the bone lesions. The megaloblastic anemia was cured by parenteral cobalamin. The adolescent and his brother were victims of a diet imposed by a cult and a lack of care due to their parents refusing that a vegan diet was the cause of the deficient pathology. Penal proceedings led to the incarceration of the parents and to the placement of the children. COMMENTS: Deficiencies in calcium and vitamins D and B12 may be severe in a child's development with a vegan diet. This case report reveals the social and legal problems of an inappropriate diet in infancy imposed by parents who are followers of a fundamentalist church. Beyond the management of children in cults, health professionals have to prevent, screen and supplement the deficient diet.
Cornejo, W., et al. (2001). "[Subacute combined degeneration. A description of the case of a strictly vegetarian child]." Rev Neurol 33(12): 1154-1157.
INTRODUCTION: Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) is an essential cofactor of various metabolic pathways. Lack of it leads to symptoms which may be constitutional, of skin or mucous membranes, hematological or neuropsychiatric disorders. Neurological involvement in adults has been well described and analyzed in the literature, however there are fewer cases of children. In the cases described in children the deficiency was related to maternal malnutrition, and socioeconomic and cultural problems. Since vegetarianism is a custom followed by different social groups we wish to draw attention to this as a cause of vitamin B12 deficiency and the neurological disorder this may cause. CLINICAL CASE: We describe the case of a 10 year old boy, a member of a religious community who were strict vegetarians. Over three months he developed: a cognitive disorder, pyramidal syndrome of his legs, involvement of the posterior spinal cord, peripheral motor and sensory alterations which, together with the complementary investigations, was found to be compatible with subacute combined degeneration due to vitamin B12 deficiency. CONCLUSION: We draw attention to the clinical and laboratory aspects of this disorder and the importance of taking the possibility of this diagnosis into account in children with nutritional risk factors.
Donaldson, M. S., et al. (2001). "Fibromyalgia syndrome improved using a mostly raw vegetarian diet: an observational study." BMC Complement Altern Med 1: 7.
BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia engulfs patients in a downward, reinforcing cycle of unrestorative sleep, chronic pain, fatigue, inactivity, and depression. In this study we tested whether a mostly raw vegetarian diet would significantly improve fibromyalgia symptoms. METHODS: Thirty people participated in a dietary intervention using a mostly raw, pure vegetarian diet. The diet consisted of raw fruits, salads, carrot juice, tubers, grain products, nuts, seeds, and a dehydrated barley grass juice product. Outcomes measured were dietary intake, the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ), SF-36 health survey, a quality of life survey (QOLS), and physical performance measurements. RESULTS: Twenty-six subjects returned dietary surveys at 2 months; 20 subjects returned surveys at the beginning, end, and at either 2 or 4 months of intervention; 3 subjects were lost to follow-up. The mean FIQ score (n = 20) was reduced 46% from 51 to 28. Seven of the 8 SF-36 subscales, bodily pain being the exception, showed significant improvement (n = 20, all P for trend < 0.01). The QOLS, scaled from 0 to 7, rose from 3.9 initially to 4.9 at 7 months (n = 20, P for trend 0.000001). Significant improvements (n = 18, P < 0.03, paired t-test) were seen in shoulder pain at rest and after motion, abduction range of motion of shoulder, flexibility, chair test, and 6-minute walk. 19 of 30 subjects were classified as responders, with significant improvement on all measured outcomes, compared to no improvement among non-responders. At 7 months responders' SF-36 scores for all scales except bodily pain were no longer statistically different from norms for women ages 45-54. CONCLUSION: This dietary intervention shows that many fibromyalgia subjects can be helped by a mostly raw vegetarian diet.
Fogarasi, A., et al. (2001). "[Macrocytic anemia and neurological signs due to vitamin B-12 deficiency in a breast-fed infant of a strict vegetarian mother]." Orv Hetil 142(46): 2581-2585.
Vitamin B12 deficiency is a very rare disease of infants and young children in Europe. Authors report a case of a 9.5-month-old infant who was exclusively breast-fed by his vegan mother and developed serious vitamin B12 deficiency in form of neurological regression, repetitive vomiting, drowsiness, dysphagia, obstipation, and tremor. A few days after intramuscular vitamin substitution his abnormal signs improved dramatically, hematological restitution was reached in six weeks. Authors describe the hematological and neurological signs, the diagnostic and differential-diagnostic pitfalls, therapy, prognosis, and prevention of this condition. Beside reviewing the literature they emphasize the importance of early recognition and intervention and the need of an appropriate doctor-parent cooperation in this disease.
Hunt, J. R. and R. A. Vanderpool (2001). "Apparent copper absorption from a vegetarian diet." Am J Clin Nutr 74(6): 803-807.
BACKGROUND: Vegetarian diets often contain more copper than do nonvegetarian diets, but observations of decreased plasma copper associated with vegetarian diets suggest that these diets have lower copper bioavailability than do nonvegetarian diets. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine apparent copper absorption from controlled lactoovovegetarian and nonvegetarian diets. DESIGN: Eighteen women aged 20-43 y consumed lactoovovegetarian and nonvegetarian weighed diets for 8 wk each in a randomized, crossover design. The lactoovovegetarian and nonvegetarian diets provided 1.45 and 0.94 mg Cu, 38 and 16 g dietary fiber, and 1584 and 518 mg phytic acid, respectively, per 9.2 MJ (2200 kcal). After the women had been consuming each diet for 4 wk, their apparent copper absorption was determined by measuring the fecal excretion of the 65Cu stable isotope, extrinsically added to the entire menu as 65CuCl2. RESULTS: Plasma copper and ceruloplasmin were not affected by diet. The efficiency of apparent copper absorption from the lactoovovegetarian diet was less (33%) than that from the nonvegetarian diet (42%) (pooled SD: 9%; P < 0.05). However, because the lactoovovegetarian diet contained approximately 50% more copper, the total apparent copper absorption from the lactoovovegetarian diet (0.48 mg/d) was greater than that from the nonvegetarian diet (0.40 mg/d) (pooled SD: 0.09 mg; P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Although copper was less efficiently absorbed from a vegetarian diet than from a nonvegetarian diet, total apparent copper absorption was greater from the vegetarian diet because of its greater copper content.
Lehmann, R. (2001). "[An adolescent vegetarian]." Arch Pediatr 8(8): 896.
Leung, S. S., et al. (2001). "Growth and nutrition of Chinese vegetarian children in Hong Kong." J Paediatr Child Health 37(3): 247-253.
OBJECTIVE: The study investigated the nutritional status of Chinese lacto-ovo-vegetarian children aged 4-14 years. METHODOLOGY: Dietary intake over 7 days was assessed using a computer program, previously used for a local population-based dietary survey. Anthropometric measurements were made and fasting venous blood was examined for serum lipids, haematological data, iron, vitamin B12 and folate status. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the spine (L2 - L4) was measured as a reflection of calcium status. RESULTS: Fifty-one lacto-ovo-vegetarians aged 4-14 years were investigated. The mean +/- standard deviation (SD) daily energy intake was 1600 +/- 425 kcal. The mean (+/- SD) daily protein intake was 1.6 +/- 0.6 g/kg bodyweight which met the United States recommended dietary allowance. Compared to that of the local omnivore diet, the vegetarian diet was closer to the recommended healthy diet with lower fat (20-23%), more fibre (5.8-8.7 g/day) and better polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (1.0-1.1). Growth and BMD of the vegetarian children were comparable to the general omnivore population. Two children had iron deficiency and two children had anaemia. The calcium status, as reflected by the BMD, was not impaired. Serum folate and vitamin B12 were within the normal range. Six (25%) boys and four (15%) girls were obese. Three boys had hyperlipidaemia. CONCLUSIONS: A Hong Kong Chinese vegetarian diet appears healthy, providing adequate iron and vitamin B12 nutrition, but the prevalence of obesity was high.
Luy, J., et al. (2001). "[The vegetarian appeal and killing animals. An ethical challenge]." Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 114(7-8): 283-289.
The demand for renunciation of killing animals has already been discussed by mankind since ancient times. Many arguments for and against this demand have accumulated in the meantime. The reproaches of the vegetarians repeatedly forced the ones who eat meat to justify their diet. Today most of these historical justifications however have to be rejected because of lacking plausibility. Many of the vegetarian arguments on the other hand must be rejected for similar reasons as well. Remaining as morally convincing is the demand for doing the killing absolutely painless and without frightening the animals, which was already formulated for example by Kant and Schopenhauer. Arguments which consider this way of killing as still immoral belong in a broad sense to the "anthropocentric" animal ethics. They do not belong to what is called in Germany "pathocentric" animal ethics, because an animal that is killed without being frightened or tortured, has not suffered, for it hasn't consciously realized anything like danger or harm. We do even argue that these animals are not harmed at all, because it seems senseless to talk about harm without negative conscious phenomena. To push ahead a ban on animal slaughter for moral reasons could be itself morally wrong because it would disturb indirectly many people's conscious well-being without being justified by protecting an animal's conscious well-being. It is however possible to derive from a general duty not to make animals suffer (pathocentric animal ethics) a duty to boycott food of animal origin if these animals had to suffer during their lives.
Muller, H., et al. (2001). "Fasting followed by vegetarian diet in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review." Scand J Rheumatol 30(1): 1-10.
Clinical experience suggests that fasting followed by vegetarian diet may help patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We reviewed the available scientific evidence, because patients frequently ask for dietary advice, and exclusive pharmacological treatment of RA is often not satisfying. Fasting studies in RA were searched in MEDLINE and by checking references in relevant reports. The results of the controlled studies which reported follow-up data for at least three months after fasting were quantitatively pooled. Thirty-one reports of fasting studies in patients with RA were found. Only four controlled studies investigated the effects of fasting and subsequent diets for at least three months. The pooling of these studies showed a statistically and clinically significant beneficial long-term effect. Thus, available evidence suggests that fasting followed by vegetarian diets might be useful in the treatment of RA. More randomised long-term studies are needed to confirm this view by methodologically convincing data.
Pena Quintana, L., et al. (2001). "[Diets in pre-school, school and adolescent age groups. Special situations: vegetarian diets and physical exercise]." An Esp Pediatr 54(5): 484-496.
Perry, C. L., et al. (2001). "Characteristics of vegetarian adolescents in a multiethnic urban population." J Adolesc Health 29(6): 406-416.
PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence of adolescents' vegetarianism in a multiethnic, urban population, and its correlates with demographic, personal, weight-related, and behavioral factors. METHODS: Self-report and anthropometric data were collected from a representative sample of 4746 adolescents from 31 public middle schools and high schools in the Twin Cities area of Minnesota. Students answered questions concerning vegetarianism, food and weight, and health behaviors. Height and weight were directly measured. Comparisons were made between self-reported vegetarians and nonvegetarians; these analyses also assessed gender and race/ethnicity interactions. In the second set of analyses, demographic and behavioral characteristics of more restricted and semi-vegetarians were examined. Analyses were done by logistic regression. RESULTS: Teenage vegetarians comprise about 6% of the sample. The vegetarians were more likely than nonvegetarians to be female, not black, weight- and body-conscious, dissatisfied with their bodies, and involved in a variety of healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors. Vegetarians more often reported having been told by a physician that they had an eating disorder and were more likely to have contemplated and attempted suicide. Vegetarian males were found to be an especially high risk group for unhealthy weight control practices. Few ethnic group differences among vegetarians were noted. Adolescents who did not eat chicken and fish were at lower risk than those who also ate chicken and fish. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent vegetarians are at greater risk than others for involvement in unhealthy and extreme weight control behaviors. Vegetarian males are at particularly high risk. Vegetarianism among adolescents may therefore be a signal for preventive intervention. Adolescents who choose to become vegetarians may also need to learn how to healthfully do so.
Povey, R., et al. (2001). "Attitudes towards following meat, vegetarian and vegan diets: an examination of the role of ambivalence." Appetite 37(1): 15-26.
Vegetarianism within the U.K. is growing in popularity, with the current estimate of 7% of the population eating a vegetarian diet. This study examined differences between the attitudes and beliefs of four dietary groups (meat eaters, meat avoiders, vegetarians and vegans) and the extent to which attitudes influenced intentions to follow each diet. In addition, the role of attitudinal ambivalence as a moderator variable was examined. Completed questionnaires were obtained from 111 respondents (25 meat eaters, 26 meat avoiders, 34 vegetarians, 26 vegans). In general, predictions were supported, in that respondents displayed most positive attitudes and beliefs towards their own diets, and most negative attitudes and beliefs towards the diet most different form their own. Regression analyses showed that, as predicted by the Theory of Planned Behaviour, attitudes, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control were significant predictors of intention to follow each diet (apart from the vegetarian diet, where subjective norm was non-significant). In each case, attitudinal ambivalence was found to moderate the attitude-intention relationship, such that attitudes were found to be stronger predictors at lower levels of ambivalence. The results not only highlight the extent to which such alternative diets are an interesting focus for psychological research, but also lend further support to the argument that ambivalence in an important influence on attitude strength.
Rauma, A. L. (2001). "[Are vegetarian diets safe?]." Duodecim 117(1): 117-121.
Rudys-Shapard, R. (2001). "Adolescent, pregnant, and vegetarian: a turbulent time for a teen." J Pediatr Health Care 15(1): 35-37.
Smolka, V., et al. (2001). "[Metabolic complications and neurologic manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency in children of vegetarian mothers]." Cas Lek Cesk 140(23): 732-735.
BACKGROUND: Serious hematological, metabolic and neurological complications owing to the nutritional deficiency of vitamin B12 may occur in infants of mothers on a strict vegetarian diet. METHODS AND RESULTS: The mother of the first child was a strict vegetarian. She had an elevated urinary methylmalonic acid level and a low concentration of serum vitamin B12. Her 13-month-old daughter was exclusively breast-fed until the age of 9 month and then she was fed only vegetables. Physical examination revealed psychomotoric retardation, apathy, muscular hypotonia, abnormal movements and failure to thrive. Laboratory analysis showed a megaloblastic anaemia, a low level of vitamin B12 and methylmalonic aciduria. MRI of the brain revealed diffuse frontotemporoparietal atrophy and retardation of myelination. After treatment with vitamin B12 supplements, abnormal movements disappeared and development improved, but a mild generalised hypotonia continued. A cranial MRI 9 months after treatment still showed signs of retardation of myelination. The second patient, an 8 month-old male, son of a strict vegetarian mother too, was referred for investigation of psychomotoric retardation, hypotonia, dyskinesia, failure to thrive and microcephaly. He was breast-fed and from 6 month of age he had also received fruit juices. Laboratory analysis revealed megaloblastic anaemia, high methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria. The patient's and his mother's serum level of vitamin B12 were low. After treatment with vitamin B12 supplements, biochemical and metabolic markers of disease were normal but there continued a generalised hypotonia, microcephaly and language delay. CONCLUSION: Our observations emphasize the health complications of nutritional cobalamine deficiency and a requirement of clinical, biochemical and metabolic monitoring in infants within strict vegetarian families.
Tanaka, T., et al. (2001). "Vegetarian diet ameliorates symptoms of atopic dermatitis through reduction of the number of peripheral eosinophils and of PGE2 synthesis by monocytes." J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci 20(6): 353-361.
Many patients with atopic dermatitis are dissatisfied with conventional treatments based on topical steroids and have experienced some traditional remedies and alternative therapies. However, most of such therapies have not been evaluated scientifically and clinically by specialists. This study was designed to assess whether a certain vegetarian diet might be effective for atopic dermatitis and if so, to identify the mechanisms of this remedy through analyses of immunological parameters. An open-trial study was carried out in twenty patients with atopic dermatitis. An improvement of dermatitis was evaluated by SCORAD index and serological and immunological parameters were monitored. After a two-month treatment, the severity of dermatitis was strikingly inhibited, as assessed by SCORAD index and serological parameters including LDH5 activity and a number of peripheral eosinophils. A sharp reduction in eosinophils and neutrophils was observed prior to improvement in the skin inflammation. In addition, PGE2 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells was reduced by this treatment. In contrast, serum IgE levels did not change during the same period. Although this study is an open-trial one, it suggests that this treatment may be useful for the treatment of adult patients with severe atopic dermatitis.
Theobald, S. (2001). "[Vegetarian nutrition--ideology or "evidence-based health benefit"?]." Med Monatsschr Pharm 24(2): 54-60.
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