(1998). "Vegetarian diet pyramid." Health News 4(3): 5.
Barr, S. I., et al. (1998). "Spinal bone mineral density in premenopausal vegetarian and nonvegetarian women: cross-sectional and prospective comparisons." J Am Diet Assoc 98(7): 760-765.
OBJECTIVE: To compare spinal bone mineral density (BMD) and 1-year BMD change between premenopausal vegetarian and nonvegetarian women. DESIGN: Cross-sectional comparison of spinal BMD at baseline and prospective comparison of a subsample. SETTING: A western Canadian metropolitan area. SUBJECTS/SAMPLES: Healthy vegetarian (n = 15 lacto-ovo-vegetarian, n = 8 vegan) and nonvegetarian (n = 22) women aged 20 to 40 years, with regular menstrual cycles and stable body weight completed baseline measurements. Twenty of these women (6 lacto-ovo-vegetarian, 5 vegan, 9 nonvegetarian) participated in repeat measurements at approximately 13 months. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Descriptive statistics, independent sample and paired t tests, 1-way analysis of variance, correlation analysis, and stepwise multiple regression were used to compare groups and to assess associations with BMD. RESULTS: At baseline, subjects were 27.2 +/- 5.1 years old. Vegetarians had lower body mass index (21.1 +/- 2.3 vs 22.7 +/- 1.9, P < .05) and percent body fat (24.0 +/- 5.5% vs 27.4 +/- 5.1%, P < .05); they also tended to have lower BMD (1.148 +/- 0.111 g/cm2 vs 1.216 +/- 0.132 g/cm2, P = .06), although this was not apparent with weight as a covariate (P = .14). Baseline BMD was predicted by vitamin B-12 intake and total body fat (R2 = .24, P = .001). Participants in the follow-up differed only in their being older than nonparticipants. Over 1 year, mean BMD increased significantly (1.1%): by diet group, nonvegetarians' BMD increased but vegetarians' BMD was unchanged. No other monitored variables were associated with BMD change. APPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS: Vegetarian women should be aware of links between low BMD and low body weight/body fat, and should maintain adequate intakes of nutrients believed to affect BMD.
Famodu, A. A., et al. (1998). "Blood pressure and blood lipid levels among vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, and non-vegetarian native Africans." Clin Biochem 31(7): 545-549.
BACKGROUND: Several epidemiological studies have implicated hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridaemia as a dietary risk factor in the etiology of vascular disease. To date, there are virtually no blood lipid data available for Negroid Black African Seventh-Day Adventist vegetarians. This study was undertaken to gain a preliminary and better understanding of the relationships between BP, blood lipids, and diets in adults at the Seventh-Day Adventist Seminary of West Africa, Ilisan-Remo, Nigeria. METHODS: Three randomly selected groups of the Nigerian populace with different dietary habits were investigated. The Seventh-Day Adventist Seminary of West Africa was the study area. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum glucose were estimated using standard methods. FINDINGS: The vegetarians (VEGs) had significantly lower body weight 75.0 +/- 1.9 kg than the semi-vegetarians (SEMI-VEGs) 77.3 +/- 1.8 kg (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the blood pressure (BP) of the three groups studied, although the VEGs exhibited lower systolic BP. The VEGs had significantly lower serum total cholesterol and triglycerides (p < 0.05), than non-vegetarians (NON-VEGs). The SEMI-VEGs had blood triglycerides values in between NON-VEGs and VEGs levels but these were not significant. There were no differences in blood glucose in the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: The vegetarian diet as well as the African natural diet are associated with lower levels of important cardiovascular disease risk factors. The significantly lower cardiovascular disease risk factors in vegetarian African Adventists could be a protective measure against the development of premature IHD and CVD incidence.
Grattan, M. (1998). "All-vegetarian cafeterias & catering pose unique challenges for hospitals." Healthc Foodserv 8(3): 1, 11.
Hackett, A., et al. (1998). "Is a vegetarian diet adequate for children." Nutr Health 12(3): 189-195.
The number of people who avoid eating meat is growing, especially among young people. Benefits to health from a vegetarian diet have been reported in adults but it is not clear to what extent these benefits are due to diet or to other aspects of lifestyles. In children concern has been expressed concerning the adequacy of vegetarian diets especially with regard to growth. The risks/benefits seem to be related to the degree of restriction of he diet; anaemia is probably both the main and the most serious risk but this also applies to omnivores. Vegan diets are more likely to be associated with malnutrition, especially if the diets are the result of authoritarian dogma. Overall, lacto-ovo-vegetarian children consume diets closer to recommendations than omnivores and their pre-pubertal growth is at least as good. The simplest strategy when becoming vegetarian may involve reliance on vegetarian convenience foods which are not necessarily superior in nutritional composition. The vegetarian sector of the food industry could do more to produce foods closer to recommendations. Vegetarian diets can be, but are not necessarily, adequate for children, providing vigilance is maintained, particularly to ensure variety. Identical comments apply to omnivorous diets. Three threats to the diet of children are too much reliance on convenience foods, lack of variety and lack of exercise.
Harman, S. K. and W. R. Parnell (1998). "The nutritional health of New Zealand vegetarian and non-vegetarian Seventh-day Adventists: selected vitamin, mineral and lipid levels." N Z Med J 111(1062): 91-94.
AIM: To determine whether adult non-vegetarian Seventh-day Adventists differ in selected nutrition related health aspects from adult vegetarian Seventh-day Adventists. METHODS: One hundred and forty-one Seventh-day Adventist church members responded to a general health questionnaire. Forty-seven sex and age matched subjects (23 non-vegetarians and 24 vegetarians) were selected for further investigation. Blood lipids, serum vitamin B12, folate, haemoglobin and ferritin levels were measured along with stature, weight and blood pressure. A quantitative 7-day diet record was also completed. RESULTS: Body mass index was similar between the non-vegetarian and vegetarian groups but diastolic blood pressure was higher for non-vegetarian than vegetarian males. Even though the dietary vitamin B12 intake was significantly lower (p < 0.01) in the vegetarian group both vegetarians and non-vegetarians recorded similar serum vitamin B12 levels. The vegetarian and non-vegetarian groups had similar haemoglobin concentrations. While dietary iron intake was higher in the female vegetarian group, though predominantly in the non-haem form, the difference was not significant. Low serum ferritin levels were found in both female dietary groups even though the vegetarian group had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher vitamin C intake. Blood lipid levels were similar in the two diet groups even though the vegetarian group had a lower percentage energy contribution from total and saturated fat (p < 0.01) and consumed significantly less cholesterol. CONCLUSION: Both non-vegetarian and vegetarian Seventh-day Adventists appear likely to enjoy a lower risk of nutrition related chronic degenerative disease than the average New Zealander and have a satisfactory iron and vitamin B12 status.
Jabs, J., et al. (1998). "Maintaining Vegetarian Diets Personal Factors, Social Networks and Environmental Resources." Can J Diet Pract Res 59(4): 183-189.
This study was designed to investigate factors influencing the maintenance of a vegetarian diet. An interpretivist approach and qualitative research methods were used in the study design. Nineteen vegetarians from a metropolitan area in Western New York State were purposefully recruited using snowball sampling to participate in in-depth interviews. Respondents varied in age, gender and type and duration of vegetarian diet, although the sample was predominantly middle-aged, middle-class and female and had ties to community groups. Interview transcripts were analyzed using the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis. The maintenance of vegetarian diets was supported by personal factors, social networks and environmental resources. Personal factors included: internal beliefs, skills and habits and physical feedback. Social networks included: organized vegetarian groups as well as animal rights, environmental, or health groups supporting vegetarianism and vegetarian friends. Environmental resources, such as the availability of new vegetarian foods in supermarkets and restaurants, facilitated maintenance of vegetarian diets. Respondents perceived that society viewed vegetarianism as increasingly "mainstream," although diet-centred family conflicts were still common. These findings can assist dietitians in developing strategies for working with vegetarian clients by providing better understanding of personal, social and environmental supports for vegetarians' dietary behaviours.
Jhala, C. I., et al. (1998). "A study of serum lipid profile part-1: Establishment of normal reference values of serum lipid levels in healthy vegetarian population of Gujarat." Indian J Clin Biochem 13(1): 1-7.
Fasting samples of 1329 apparently healthy vegetarian Gujarati population were tested for total cholesterol, triglycerides and three major fractions of lipoproteins, i.e. high density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins and very low density lipoproteins. All the values showed marked increase with the age. Except for serum triglycerides, values differ in males and females in the age group of above 45 years. Compared to Northern Indian population low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein values were higher, but values of triglycerides and very low density lipoproteins were lower. There is no significant difference in total cholesterol values. Compared to Southern Indian population low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein values were higher but values of triglycerides, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein were lower. All serum lipid values were significantly lower than the Westem population. The range of values for both the sexes is presented for different age groups.
Johansson, G., et al. (1998). "Long-term effects of a change from a mixed diet to a lacto-vegetarian diet on human urinary and faecal mutagenic activity." Mutagenesis 13(2): 167-171.
This is an investigation of the long-term effects of a shift from a mixed diet to a lacto-vegetarian diet and of a return to a mixed diet on the mutagenic activity in urine and faeces. The participants were 20 normal weight, non-smoking subjects. Dietary surveys and urinary and faecal samples were collected before and 3, 6 and 12 months after the dietary shift as well as 3 years after termination of the lacto-vegetarian diet period. The faecal samples were assayed for direct acting mutagens with the fluctuation test for weak mutagens and the urinary samples were assayed with the same assay but with a metabolic activation system, the so-called S9 fraction. The dietary data showed an increase in consumption of fruits, vegetables and dairy products and a decrease in meat, fish, eggs, sweets and biscuits during the vegetarian diet period. These changes led to an increase in total carbohydrates, fibre, vitamin C and calcium and a decrease in fat and protein intake. Mutagenic activity in both urine and faeces decreased after shift to the vegetarian diet and mutagenic activity in faeces increased when the volunteers returned to a mixed diet (P = 0.025 and 0.035 respectively when comparing the diets). These data indicate that dietary factors may effect mutagenic activity in urine and faeces. However, it is still not clear whether a decrease in animal products, a change in other nutritional factors or a decrease in frying are the main contributors to this change.
Kenyon, P. M. and M. E. Barker (1998). "Attitudes towards meat-eating in vegetarian and non-vegetarian teenage girls in England--an ethnographic approach." Appetite 30(2): 185-198.
This study compared vegetarian and non-vegetarian teenage English girls' attitudes towards meat. A convenience sample of 15 vegetarian (mean age 17.2 years) and 15 non-vegetarian (mean age 17.3 years) girls was recruited from a teenage health clinic. Attitudes towards meat were assessed in a single, tape-recorded, semi-structured interview. Eight themes of the cultural meaning of meat were identified; five were common to both groups: Animal (66% of vegetarians, 33% of non-vegetarians); Taste/Texture/Smell (66%, 60%); Flesh and Blood (86%, 26%); Colour (33%, 20%); Miscellaneous (60%, 46%). The theme Eating Well was unique to the non-vegetarian group (40%). The themes Life/Death and Health-related were unique to the vegetarian group (66 and 20%, respectively). The vegetarians generally abhorred killing animals for food, meat's sensory characteristics and ingesting blood. A meat-free diet was not particularly associated with health in either group. The non-vegetarians tended to characterize meat positively, both liking meat's sensory characteristics and associating meat with luxury and special occasions. We speculate on possible reasons for the current popularity of vegetarianism in teenage girls.
Kloeris, V., et al. (1998). "Design and implementation of a vegetarian food system for a closed chamber test." Life Support Biosph Sci 5(2): 231-242.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is conducting a series of closed chamber environmental tests, called the Lunar Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP), which is designed to provide data for the development of surface habitats for the Moon and Mars. These surface habitats will be closed loop environmental systems that will recycle air and water and will grow crops to provide food for crew members. In conjunction with these tests, the Food Systems Engineering Facility at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) tested a 10-day vegetarian menu based on items that can be made from the projected crop list for these habitats. The planned menu met most of the nutritional requirements of the four crew members and was found highly acceptable. Automation of the food preparation and processing equipment was strongly recommended because the preparation time was judged excessive. The waste generated was largely due to leftovers.
Lakin, V., et al. (1998). "Dietary intake and tissue concentration of fatty acids in omnivore, vegetarian and diabetic pregnancy." Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 59(3): 209-220.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of fatty acid intake and insulin dependent diabetes on the fatty acid composition of maternal erythrocytes, the placenta and cord. Fatty acid intake (from food frequency questionnaire) and the fatty acid composition of maternal erythrocytes, the placenta and cord from pregnant vegetarians (n = 4) and insulin dependent diabetics (n = 5) was compared with pregnant omnivores (n = 10). There was a significantly lower intake of n-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) (-75% P < 0.01) and n-3 LCPUFA (-92% P < 0.01) and increased ratio of n-6/n-3 LCPUFA in the vegetarians (103%; P < 0.001). The concentrations of 22:4 n-6 (+28%; P < 0.05) and 22:5 n-3 (+40%; P < 0.05) were higher in vegetarian erythrocytes. Placental 18:2 n-6 (+26.9%; P < 0.05) 18:3 n-3 (+139%; P < 0.05) and 22:5 n-3 (+24%; P < 0.05) were increased while 20:5 n-3 (-36%; P < 0.05), 22:6 n-3 (-16%; P = 0.059), and the ratios of 20:4 n-6/18:2 n-6 (P < 0.01) and 22:6 n-3/18:3 n-3 were reduced. 22:6 n-6 (-49%; P < 0.05) and total n-3 LCPUFA (-11%; P < 0.01) were reduced in vegetarian cord. For the diabetic mothers, all of the n-6 LCPUFA and n-3 LCPUFA were reduced in the maternal erythrocytes; 22:4 n-6 (-42%; P < 0.05), 22:5 n-6 (-46%; P < 0.05) and 22:6 n-3 (-41%; P < 0.05). For the diabetic placenta and cord the general pattern of n-3 LCPUFA was the same as that in the vegetarians. In the vegetarian mothers, the PUFA profiles in the maternal erythrocytes, placenta and cord are consistent with an elevation in the rate of LCPUFA synthesis in order to make up the relative deficit in LCPUFA intake. However, it may be that the higher level of desaturase activity is not able to overcome the dietary deficit of 22-6 n-3 and 22:6 n-6. Despite the fact that the dietary LCPUFA intake in the pregnant diabetic was comparable with that in the pregnant 'normal' omnivore mothers, the pattern of PUFA in the tissues resembled that of the vegetarian mothers.
Steele, M., et al. (1998). "Efficacy of intraperitoneal amino acid (IPAA) dialysate in an Asian vegetarian patient with chronic hypoalbuminaemia." EDTNA ERCA J 24(2): 28-32.
Protein-calorie malnutrition is commonly found in chronic CAPD patients and is a matter of concern since low serum albumin levels correlate with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Recognition of this link has therefore led to a growing interest in the efficacy of IPAA therapy as a possible treatment option. The present case study took place within a larger, ongoing clinical trial and outlines our experience of administering one exchange of 1.1% IPAA (Nutrineal, Baxter Healthcare Ltd) per day over 18 weeks to a patient identified as being protein malnourished.
Wilson, C. D., et al. (1998). "Consumer acceptance of vegetarian sweet potato products intended for space missions." Life Support Biosph Sci 5(3): 339-346.
Sweet potato is one of the crops selected for NASA's Advanced Life Support Program for potential long-duration lunar/Mars missions. This article presents recipes of products made from sweet potato and determines the consumer acceptability of products containing from 6% to 20% sweet potato on a dry weight basis. These products were developed for use in nutritious and palatable meals for future space explorers. Sensory evaluation (appearance/color, aroma, texture, flavor/taste, and overall acceptability) studies were conducted to determine the consumer acceptability of vegetarian products made with sweet potato using panelists at NASA/Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX. None of these products including the controls, contained any ingredient of animal origin with the exception of sweet potato pie. A 9-point hedonic scale (9 being like extremely and 1 being dislike extremely) was used to evaluate 10 products and compare them to similar commercially available products used as controls. The products tested were pancakes, waffles, tortillas, bread, pie, pound cake, pasta, vegetable patties, doughnuts, and pretzels. All of the products were either liked moderately or liked slightly with the exception of the sweet potato vegetable patties, which were neither liked nor disliked. Mean comparisons of sensory scores of sweet potato recipes and their controls were accomplished by using the Student t-test. Because of their nutritional adequacy and consumer acceptability, these products are being recommended to NASA's Advanced Life Support Program for inclusion in a vegetarian menu plan designed for lunar/Mars space missions.
Wilson, C. D., et al. (1998). "Sweet potato in a vegetarian menu plan for NASA's Advanced Life Support Program." Life Support Biosph Sci 5(3): 347-351.
Sweet potato has been selected as one of the crops for NASA's Advanced Life Support Program. Sweet potato primarily provides carbohydrate--an important energy source, beta-carotene, and ascorbic acid to a space diet. This study focuses on menus incorporating two sets of sweet potato recipes developed at Tuskegee University. One set includes recipes for 10 vegetarian products containing fom 6% to 20% sweet potato on a dry weight basis (pancakes, waffles, tortillas, bread, pie, pound cake, pasta, vegetable patties, doughnuts, and pretzels) that have been formulated, subjected to sensory evaluation, and determined to be acceptable. These recipes and the other set of recipes, not tested organoleptically, were substituted in a 10-day vegetarian menu plan developed by the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) Kennedy Space Center Biomass Processing Technical Panel. At least one recipe containing sweet potato was included in each meal. An analysis of the nutritional quality of this menu compared to the original AIBS menu found improved beta-carotene content (p<0.05). All other nutrients, except vitamin B6, and calories were equal and in some instances greater than those listed for NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems RDA. These results suggest that sweet potato products can be used successfully in menus developed for space with the added benefit of increased nutrient value and dietary variety.
등록된 댓글이 없습니다.