Ball, D. and R. J. Maughan (1997). "Blood and urine acid-base status of premenopausal omnivorous and vegetarian women." Br J Nutr 78(5): 683-693.
The effect of long-term differences in diet composition on whole-body acid-base status was examined in thirty-three young healthy females. The volunteers were recruited from two separate groups matched approximately for age, height and weight; one group regularly ate meat (omnivores; n 20) and one group did not (vegetarians; n 13). All subjects completed a 7 d weighed intake of food, and from their dietary records, total energy, carbohydrate (CHO), fat and protein content were estimated using computer-based food composition tables. During this week they reported to the laboratory on two occasions, following an overnight fast and separated by at least 48 h. Arterialized venous blood samples were obtained on each visit and these were analysed for blood acid-base status. Haemoglobin and packed cell volume, serum total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol, serum albumin and total protein were also determined. Two 24 h urine collections were completed; the volume was recorded and samples were analysed for pH, titratable acid and Mg and Ca concentration. Total energy intake of the omnivores was greater (P = 0.0003) than that of the vegetarian group. Dietary intake of CHO (P = 0.024), fat (P = 0.0054) and protein (P = 0.0002) were higher in the omnivorous group than in the vegetarians. There were no differences between the two groups with respect to blood CO2 partial pressure, plasma HCO3- and blood base excess, but blood pH was slightly higher in the omnivores (P = 0.064). Measures of urine acid-base status suggested a lower pH in the omnivore group, but this difference was not statistically significant; a greater titratable acid output was observed with the omnivorous group compared with the vegetarians (48.9 (SE 20.3) v. 35.3 (SE 23.3) mEq/24h; P = 0.018). Although the dietary intake of Ca was not different between the two groups, urinary Ca excretion of the omnivores was significantly higher (3.87 (SD 1.34) v. 3.22 (SD 1.20) mmol/24 h) than that of the vegetarians (P = 0.014). It is suggested that the higher protein intake of the omnivores resulted in an increase in urinary total acid excretion, which may explain the higher rate of Ca excretion.
Ball, M. (1997). "Vegetarian, vegan or meat eater. The pros and the cons." Aust Fam Physician 26(11): 1269-1274.
This article discusses the potential health benefits of a vegetarian diet, while highlighting some potential problems that may occur if such a dietary regimen is adopted, particularly in certain groups. It emphasises the importance of health professionals contributing to people's knowledge of nutrition in order to allow them to choose a healthy diet, whether they are vegetarian or meat eaters.
Carranza-Madrigal, J., et al. (1997). "Effects of a vegetarian diet vs. a vegetarian diet enriched with avocado in hypercholesterolemic patients." Arch Med Res 28(4): 537-541.
To determine the effects of a vegetarian diet with avocado as a source of monounsaturated fat on serum lipids, thirteen patients with phenotype II (twelve with IIa and one with IIb) dyslipidemia were included in a prospective, transversal and comparative study in which three four-week diets randomly assigned were assessed. One vegetarian diet (ALVD) was composed of 70% carbohydrates, 10% proteins and 20% lipids. Another was composed of 60% carbohydrates, 10% proteins and 30% lipids, 75% of which was supplied by avocado (AVD). A third diet was an avocado-added free diet (FDWA). Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and serum lipids (total cholesterol (TC), high (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides (TG)) were evaluated. AVD produced a significant decrease in LDL. ALVD did not change TC and LDL, while FDWA increased them slightly. The three diets reduced TG levels, but only ALVD did so significantly. All three diets reduced HDL levels, particularly ALVD, which produced the greatest reduction. Low-fat, carbohydrate-rich vegetarian diets may be harmful to hypercholesterolemic patients. The avocado addition to a vegetarian diet does not correct these undesirable effects. To obtain beneficial effects on lipid profile with avocado, lower amounts of carbohydrates and polyunsaturated fatty acids are probably needed.
Chiu, J. F., et al. (1997). "Long-term vegetarian diet and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Taiwanese women." Calcif Tissue Int 60(3): 245-249.
This study examined bone density among postmenopausal Buddhist nuns and female religious followers of Buddhism in southern Taiwan and related the measurements to subjects characteristics including age, body mass, physical activity, nutrient intake, and vegetarian practice. A total of 258 postmenopausal Taiwanese vegetarian women participated in the study. Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) were measured using dual-photon absorptimetry. BMD measurements were analyzed first as quantitative outcomes in multiple regression analyses and next as indicators of osteopenia status in logistic regression analyses. Among the independent variables examined, age inversely and body mass index positively correlated with both the spine and femoral neck BMD measurements. They were also significant predictors of the osteopenia status. Energy intake from protein was a significant correlate of lumbar spine BMD only. Other nutrients, including calcium and energy intake from nonprotein sources, did not correlate significantly with the two bone density parameters. Long-term practitioners of vegan vegetarian were found to be at a higher risk of exceeding lumbar spine fracture threshold (adjusted odds ratio = 2.48, 95% confidence interval = 1.03-5.96) and of being classified as having osteopenia of the femoral neck (3.94, 1.21-12.82). Identification of effective nutrition supplements may be necessary to improve BMD levels and to reduce the risk of osteoporosis among long-term female vegetarians.
Gibson, R. S., et al. (1997). "Dietary strategies to improve the iron and zinc nutriture of young women following a vegetarian diet." Plant Foods Hum Nutr 51(1): 1-16.
Dietary strategies to enhance the content and bioavailability of iron and zinc in vegetarian diets were compiled. Strategies included increasing promoters and decreasing antagonists of iron and zinc absorption, adopting food preparation and processing methods which hydrolyze the phytate content of cereals and legumes, and using iron cookware. These strategies were used to devise two vegetarian menus based on food consumption patterns derived from three day weighed food records of 78 Canadian lacto-ovo-vegetarian adolescents. The iron and zinc, as well as calcium, phosphorus, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin A, protein and energy content of the devised menus were all higher than the actual intakes and the corresponding Canadian recommended nutrient intakes. Results show the overall nutrient adequacy of the recommended vegetarian menus and indicate that young lacto-vegetarian women can potentially meet their estimated dietary requirements for absorbed iron and zinc through modest modifications to the diet. Laboratory studies designed to measure the total amount of iron and zinc absorbed from these diets by young vegetarian women are needed to verify the efficacy of the devised menus.
Hudson, P. and M. Evans (1997). "Vegetarian nutrition for pregnant women." Nurs Times 93(33): 50-51.
Krajcovicova-Kudlackova, M., et al. (1997). "[Risks and advantages of the vegetarian diet]." Cas Lek Cesk 136(23): 715-719.
The authors summarize the health risks and advantages of alternative nutrition-lactovegetarian, lactoovovegetarian and vegan. These dietary patterns involve risk in particular during pregnancy, lactation and for the growing organism. Veganism excluding all foods of animal origin involves the greatest risk. General nutritional principles for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, oncological diseases and diabetes are fully met by the vegetarian diet. Vegetarians and vegans have low risk factors of atherosclerosis and conversely higher levels of antisclerotic substances. Overthreshold values of essential antioxidants in vegetarians imply a protective action against reactive metabolic oxygen products and toxic products of lipid peroxidation and may reduce the incidence of free radical diseases. The authors also draw attention to some still open problems of vegetarianism (higher n-3 fatty acids, taurine, carnitine). In the conclusion semivegetarianism is evaluated.
Krajcovicova-Kudlackova, M., et al. (1997). "Influence of vegetarian and mixed nutrition on selected haematological and biochemical parameters in children." Nahrung 41(5): 311-314.
To evaluate the health and nutritional status of children with two different nutritional habits, the authors examined 26 vegetarians (lacto- and lacto-ovo; an average period of vegetarianism 2.8 years) and 32 individuals on mixed diet (omnivores) in the age range 11-14 years. Vegetarian children had significantly lower erythrocyte number as well as reduced levels of haemoglobin and iron compared to omnivores. The average level of iron did not reach the lower limit of the physiological range and hyposiderinemia was found in 58% of vegetarians vs 9% of omnivores. Reduced iron levels were observed in spite of increased intake of vegetable iron sources and vitamin C (which facilitates the conversion to ferro-form). This reduction can be attributed to the absence of animal iron sources with high utilizability and to lower iron utilization in the presence of phytic acid (higher intake of grains compared to omnivores). The incidence of hypoalbuminemia and hypoproteinemia in vegetarian children was 38 and 12%, respectively, compared to 0% in omnivores. The protein mixture from milk, eggs and vegetable sources is complete, but vegetarian children had significantly reduced intake of milk and dairy products. Favourable lipid and antioxidant parameters in vegetarian children reflect the optimal nutrition composition with respect to the prevention of free radical diseases. Such a nutrition results in significantly lower levels of cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol compared to omnivores and significantly higher and over threshold values of essential antioxidants--vitamin C, vitamin E/cholesterol (more effective protection against LDL oxidation), beta-carotene, vitamin A.
Medkova, I. L., et al. (1997). "[Balanced vegetarian diet in combined rehabilitation of patients suffering from ischemic heart disease]." Klin Med (Mosk) 75(1): 28-31.
The clinical status of 30 patients suffering from ischemic heart disease, their serum lipids and other biochemical parameters, exercise tolerance were studied. 20 patients from the group were on a specially developed antiatherosclerosis vegetarian diet VA-1; the control group comprised 10 patients who had a mixed diet A-1. It is shown that the vegetarian diet used made it possible to normalize the serum lipid spectrum, the levels of the blood pressure, to increase the tolerance to exercise, to eliminate functional disturbances of the digestive system. The investigation demonstrated the effectiveness of the vegetarian diet as a means of rehabilitation of patients suffering from ischemic heart disease.
Medkova, I. L., et al. (1997). "[The results of exposure to an antisclerotic vegetarian diet enriched with soy-based products on patients in the secondary prevention of ischemic heart disease]." Ter Arkh 69(9): 52-55.
The effects of an atherogenic vegetarian diet enriched by soya-based products were investigated for the first time in this country. Clinical status and biochemical parameters of 32 patients suffering from coronary heart disease were studied. Groups 1, 2 and 3 were on the diet for 11-17, 19-22 and 30-40 days, respectively. Hyperlipidemic medicines were discontinued. The vegetarian diet resulted in normalization of the serum lipid spectrum. The most pronounced effect was achieved in group III. The developed vegetarian diet neutralized the adverse effects (an increase of cholesterol and triglycerides) of beta-blockers.
Messina, V. K. and K. I. Burke (1997). "Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets." J Am Diet Assoc 97(11): 1317-1321.
Nathan, I., et al. (1997). "A longitudinal study of the growth of matched pairs of vegetarian and omnivorous children, aged 7-11 years, in the north-west of England." Eur J Clin Nutr 51(1): 20-25.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of a meat free diet to support normal growth of children. DESIGN: A one year longitudinal observational case--comparison study of growth. SETTING: Children were recruited mainly through schools from Merseyside and all measurements were taken in their homes. SUBJECTS: Fifty 'free-living' children following meat free diets, aged 7-11 y (expected to be pre-pubertal), were compared with a control group of 50 omnivores matched for age, sex and ethnic group. INTERVENTION: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Height, weight, upper arm skinfold thicknesses and mid-upper arm circumference measurements were taken at baseline and one year later. The increments over one year were each analysed using a multiple stepwise regression model which derived predicted increments controlled for a variety of factors other than the diet factor. RESULTS: Of all the anthropometric measurements examined only the predicted height increment of the vegetarians was slightly greater than that of the omnivores (difference in predicted height increment = 0.47 cm, P = 0.05). This difference was only apparent after allowing for father's height, maternal smoking habit and number of siblings. A tendency for the vegetarians to be leaner than the omnivores was not significant at the 5% level and both the vegetarian and omnivorous groups lay close to the 50th percentiles for both height and weight (Child Growth Foundation, 1994). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that these children who followed a meat free diet and conventional lifestyles grew at least as well as children who ate meat.
Nickel, K. P., et al. (1997). "Calcium bioavailability of vegetarian diets in rats: potential application in a bioregenerative life-support system." J Food Sci 62(3): 619-621, 631.
Calcium bioavailability of vegetarian diets containing various proportions of candidate crops for a controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) was determined by femur 45Ca uptake. Three vegetarian diets and a control diet were labeled extrinsically with 45Ca and fed to 5-wk old male rats. A fifth group of rats fed an unlabeled control diet received an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 45Ca. There was no significant difference in mean calcium absorption of vegetarian diets (90.80 +/- 5.23%) and control diet (87.85 +/- 5.25%) when calculated as the percent of an IP dose. The amounts of phytate, oxalate, and dietary fiber in the diets did not affect calcium absorption.
Schmidt, T., et al. (1997). "Changes in cardiovascular risk factors and hormones during a comprehensive residential three month kriya yoga training and vegetarian nutrition." Acta Physiol Scand Suppl 640: 158-162.
In participants of a comprehensive residential three month yoga and mediation training programme living on a low fat lacto-vegetarian diet changes in cardiovascular risk factors and hormones were studied. Substantial risk factor reduction was found. Body mass index, total serum and LDL cholesterol, fibrinogen, and blood pressure were significantly reduced especially in those with elevated levels. Urinary excretion of adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine, aldosterone, as well as serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels were reduced, while cortisol excretion increased significantly.
Walter, P. (1997). "Effects of vegetarian diets on aging and longevity." Nutr Rev 55(1 Pt 2): S61-65; discussion S65-68.
Williams, P. T. (1997). "Interactive effects of exercise, alcohol, and vegetarian diet on coronary artery disease risk factors in 9242 runners: the National Runners' Health Study." Am J Clin Nutr 66(5): 1197-1206.
In a national survey, 199 male and 152 female vegetarian runners and 7054 male and 1837 female omnivorous runners provided data on weekly intakes of alcohol, red meat, fish, and fruit, and weekly distance run. This information was compared with physician-supplied medical data to test whether 1) running benefits vegetarians, 2) alcohol and running distance contribute independently to concentrations of high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and 3) running mitigates the hypertensive effects of alcohol. Greater reported weekly distance run by vegetarians was associated with greater HDL-cholesterol concentrations [slopes +/- SEs for men and women, respectively: 0.003 +/- 0.001 and 0.005 +/- 0.002 (mmol/L)/km] and lower waist (-0.06 +/- 0.02 and-0.08 +/- 0.02 cm/km), hip (-0.05 +/- 0.03 and -0.07 +/- 0.02 cm/km), and chest (-0.05 +/- 0.02 cm/km for both) circumferences. In men and women, alcohol and running distance contributed independently to higher HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Men who ran > 72 km and drank > 177 mL (6 oz) alcohol/wk were five times more likely to have clinically defined high HDL cholesterol (> or = 1.55 mmol/L, or > or = 60 mg/dL) than were nondrinkers running < 24 km/wk. Regardless of running level, men's blood pressure increased in association with alcohol intake. These data suggest that 1) running distance in vegetarians and vegans has the same relation to HDL cholesterol (increasing) and adiposity (decreasing) as reported previously for omnivores, 2) alcohol and running distance contribute independently to higher HDL cholesterol, and 3) running does not abate the hypertensive effects of alcohol in men. Also, vigorous exercise provides important health benefits beyond those obtained by diet.
Woodward, J. M. and D. S. Sanders (1997). "Pigbel-like syndrome in a vegetarian in Oxford." Gut 40(5): 695.
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