Conquer, J. A. and B. J. Holub (1996). "Supplementation with an algae source of docosahexaenoic acid increases (n-3) fatty acid status and alters selected risk factors for heart disease in vegetarian subjects." J Nutr 126(12): 3032-3039.
The purpose of this double-blind study was to investigate the influence of dietary supplementation with an algae source of docosahexaenoic acid [DHA; 22:6(n-3)], devoid of any eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA; 20:5(n-3)], on serum/platelet DHA status, the estimated retroconversion of DHA to EPA, and risk factors for heart disease in vegetarian subjects. Healthy vegetarians (12 male, 12 female) consumed nine capsules daily of either DHA (1.62 g/d) or corn oil for 6 wk. Consumption of DHA capsules increased DHA levels in serum phospholipid by 246% (from 2.4 to 8.3 g/100 g fatty acids) and in platelet phospholipid by 225% (from 1.2 to 3.9 g/100 g fatty acids). EPA levels increased in serum phospholipid by 117% (from 0.57 to 1.3 g/100 g fatty acids) and in platelet phospholipid by 176% (0.21 to 0.58 g/100 g fatty acids) via metabolic retroconversion; the estimated extent of DHA retroconversion to EPA was 11.3 and 12.0%, based on the serum and platelet analyses, respectively. Arachidonic acid [AA; 20:4(n-6)] levels in serum and platelet phospholipids decreased moderately during the trial period (DHA group) as did both docosapentaenoic acids [22:5(n-6) and 22:5(n-3)]. Although no significant changes were found in the total and LDL-cholesterol levels with DHA supplementation, the total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio showed a moderate decrease over time as did the LDL-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio and serum triglyceride concentrations. DHA supplementation did not alter the various thrombogenic factors measured. In conclusion, DHA supplementation markedly enhanced the DHA status (of serum and platelets), provided for the formation of substantial EPA, and lowered the total and LDL-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratios.
Donovan, U. M. and R. S. Gibson (1996). "Dietary intakes of adolescent females consuming vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, and omnivorous diets." J Adolesc Health 18(4): 292-300.
PURPOSE: To determine the energy and nutrient intakes of some omnivorous and vegetarian female adolescents to compare their risk for nutrient inadequacies. METHODS: A convenience sample of 78 lacto-ovo-vegetarians (LOV), 15 semi-vegetarians (SV), and 29 omnivorous (OM) females aged 14-19 years completed three-day weighed records from which mean intakes and major food sources of energy, nutrients, and dietary fiber (as nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP)) were calculated. RESULTS: Mean daily intakes for energy and most nutrients were comparable for the three groups although LOV had higher intakes (p < 0.01) of NSP, copper, and manganese. Lacto-ovo-vegetarians consumed (g/d) less dairy products, flesh foods, and sweets but more legumes, nuts, and vegetables. Major food sources were cereal products for energy, most nutrients, NSP, dairy products for calcium, and fruits and vegetables for vitamin C. More LOV and SV had energy intakes less than two-thirds of Canadian recommendations, and higher probability estimates of inadequacy for protein, calcium, iron, zinc, and riboflavin than OM. Fewer LOV (35%) than SV (53%) and OM (41%) had diets with less than 30% energy from fat. CONCLUSIONS: LOV and SV were more at risk for nutrient inadequacies than OM, although about 33% of OM were also at risk for inadequate intakes of iron and zinc.
Farrant, J. M., et al. (1996). "Pigbel-like syndrome in a vegetarian in Oxford." Gut 39(2): 336-337.
Enterocolitis necroticans or pigbel is a rare condition characteristically affecting chronically malnourished people who abruptly increase their intake of protein. The classic presentation of the disease as seen in the highlands of Papua New Guinea is that of a necrotising enterocolitis after the ritual ingestion of contaminated pork. In this context, the presentation of the same disease in a well nourished white vegetarian in Oxford was all the more intriguing.
Jackson, A. A., et al. (1996). "Urinary excretion of 5-L-oxoproline (pyroglutamic acid) is increased in normal adults consuming vegetarian or low protein diets." J Nutr 126(11): 2813-2822.
A method for measuring 5-L-oxoproline in urine, which involves isolation by short-column chromatography, acid hydrolysis to glutamic acid and enzymic assay of glutamic acid, was used to measure the rate of excretion in normal adults, aged 20 to 45 y. There was no difference in the daily excretion between omnivorous males (217 micromol/d) and females (195 micromol/d). In vegetarian males, urinary 5-L-oxoproline (404 micromol/d) was significantly greater than in vegetarian females (267 micromol/d, P = 0.013). Compared with omnivorous males or females, excretion of 5-L-oxoproline was significantly greater in vegetarian males (P < 0.0001) and females (P= 0.005). When normal adults consumed a diet in which the protein content was controlled at either 4.0 or 6.2 g N/d for 5 d, there was a significant increase in urinary 5-L-oxoproline on d 5, compared with either d 1 or 4. There was a significant inverse linear relationship between the increased urinary 5-L-oxoproline on the fifth dietary day and the nitrogen content of the diet. On the basis of this relationship, when the urinary excretion of 5-L-oxoproline (320 micromol/d) for vegetarians was predicted from an estimate of their dietary intake of nitrogen, the estimate was, on average, close to the measured value (345 micromol/d). As a matter of course, vegetarians excrete more 5-L-oxoproline in urine than do omnivores, and we speculated that this difference might be accounted for by differences in dietary nitrogen and the endogenous capacity for de novo synthesis of glycine.
Medkova, I. L., et al. (1996). "[Feasibility of correcting lipid metabolism in patients with cardiovascular diseases using a balanced vegetarian diet]." Vopr Pitan(2): 29-32.
The spectrum of lipids in 20 patients with dyslipoproteinemia type IIa and IIb (group I and group II) was studied. The patients were treated for 24 days with a lactoovovegetarian diet used for the first time in the country. No drugs were employed. A decrease in the levels of cholesterol, atherogenic lipoproteins and atherogenic coefficient was observed after the treatment. The patients, who were offered a questionnaire highly appreciated the diet.
Nathan, I., et al. (1996). "The dietary intake of a group of vegetarian children aged 7-11 years compared with matched omnivores." Br J Nutr 75(4): 533-544.
There is a lack of information concerning the diet of vegetarian children. The present study compared the dietary intake of fifty vegetarian children, aged 7-11 years, with fifty matched omnivores. Three 3 d food records were completed by each child at intervals of 6 months. The day after completing the record each child was interviewed to clarify food items and assess portion sizes. Food records were analysed using Microdiet (University of Salford). Finger-prick cholesterol and haemoglobin measurements were taken from a subsample of the group. Only one child's family was a member of the Vegetarian Society and almost one-third of vegetarian children had omnivorous parents (seventeen of fifty subjects). The energy intake (MJ) of the vegetarians was significantly lower than that of the omnivores, 7.6 (SD 1.05) and 8.0 (SD 1.36) respectively; there were no significant differences in Fe or fat intakes. For the vegetarians polyunsaturated:saturated fat ratio (P:S 0.7 (SD 0.04)) and NSP intake (13.8 (SD 0.7) g/d) were significantly higher than those of the omnivores (P:S 0.5 (SD 0.02), NSP 10.3 (SD 0.4) g/d). There was no significant difference in cholesterol measurements (mmol/l) between the two groups: vegetarian 3.5 (SD 0.12), omnivores 3.7 (SD 0.15). The haemoglobin level (g/l) of the vegetarians (11.8 (SD 0.2)) was significantly below that of the omnivores (12.4 (SD 0.2)); 47.5% of the vegetarian children fell below the third percentile of the Dallman reference curves (Dallman & Siimes, 1979). The intake of the vegetarians more closely resembled current recommendations (Department of Health, 1991), although they need to be as aware as omnivores of the need to reduce fat intake. The haemoglobin levels of vegetarian children suggest that they need dietary advice to ensure optimal absorption of Fe.
Pauletto, P., et al. (1996). "Blood pressure, serum lipids, and fatty acids in populations on a lake-fish diet or on a vegetarian diet in Tanzania." Lipids 31 Suppl: S309-312.
Major risk factors for coronary heart disease were assessed in two populations of Tanzania, one on a fish diet (FD) living along the coast of Lake Nyasa, and the other, mainly on a vegetarian diet (VD), living in a farming area. Lower blood pressure values were found in the FD subjects (n = 618) vs. VD (n = 618) (systolic blood pressure, SBP, 120 +/- 15 vs. 135 +/- 20, P < 0.01; diastolic blood pressure, DBP, 70 +/- 9 vs. 78 +/- 11, P < 0.01, respectively). In an FD subgroup (n = 61), total cholesterol (TC) (122 vs. 136 mg/dL, P < 0.01); triglycerides (TG) (82 vs. 105 mg/dL, P < 0.01); and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] (19.9 +/- 18.4 vs. 32.3 +/- 22.4, P < 0.001) were lower than in a VD subgroup (n = 55). Serum fatty acids (FA) in the FD subgroup were as follows: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (20:5) 2.48 vs. 0.72%, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (22:6) 5.93 vs. 1.49%, vs. the VD, respectively. Arachidonic acid (AA) (20:4n-6) also was higher in the FD vs. the VD group (9.85 vs. 8.30%, P < 0.05), whereas 18:2n-6 was about double (23.97 and 14.85%) in VD vs. FD. The peculiar serum FA pattern in FD reflected the FA of dietary fish. In fact, in four main species of lake fish, DHA was 8-19%, higher than EPA (1.8-4.2%), in contrast with the situation in cold-water fish, and AA was 5.8-8%, higher than in cold-water fish. The data, obtained in populations strictly on natural, unprocessed, low-fat diets, show that a diet based on freshwater fish results in lower BP, serum TC, TG, and Lp(a), and suggests that serum AA is not reduced when the major dietary n-3 is DNA rather than EPA.
Pauletto, P., et al. (1996). "Blood pressure and atherogenic lipoprotein profiles of fish-diet and vegetarian villagers in Tanzania: the Lugalawa study." Lancet 348(9030): 784-788.
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that populations with a high intake of fish, and specifically fish oils, are at reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. To explore the effect of fish intake, we compared two groups of Bantu villagers in Tanzania; one group live on the shores of Lake Nyasa and their diet includes large amounts of freshwater fish; the other group live in the nearby hills and have a vegetarian diet. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study of 622 fish-consuming villagers and 686 vegetarian villagers. 618 (99.4%) and 645 (94.0%), respectively, agreed to take part. Anthropometric and self-reported medical history data were collected by one local physician and a medical assistant, who also measured blood pressure and took blood samples for measurement of plasma lipids. A dietary questionnaire was administered to 25 families (about 15% of the study population) in each village. FINDINGS: After adjustment for age, sex, and alcohol intake the fish-consuming group had lower mean blood pressure than the vegetarian group (123/72 vs 133/76 mm Hg, p < 0.001). The frequencies of definite and borderline hypertension (by WHO criteria) were lower in the fish-consuming than in the vegetarian group (2.8 vs 16.4%; 9.7 vs 22.3%, respectively). Plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (mean 3.53 [SD 1.04] vs 4.10 [1.04] mmol/L), triglycerides (0.92 [0.64] vs 1.31 [0.64] mmol/L), and lipoprotein(a) (201  vs 321  mg/L), were all lower (p < 0.0001) in the fish-consuming group than in the vegetarian group. The proportions of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma lipids were higher (p < 0.0001) in the fish-consuming group than in the vegetarian group (eicosapentaenoic acid 2.3 [1.3] vs 0.7 [0.2]%; docosapentaenoic acid 1.1 [0.4] vs 0.6 [0.3]%; docosahexaenoic acid 5.7 [1.6] vs 1.5 [1.1]%). INTERPRETATION: In these villagers, consumption of freshwater fish (300-600 g daily) was associated with raised plasma concentrations of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, lower blood pressure, and lower plasma lipid concentrations.
Rosener, M. and J. Dichgans (1996). "Severe combined degeneration of the spinal cord after nitrous oxide anaesthesia in a vegetarian." J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 60(3): 354.
Salisbury, F. B. and M. A. Clark (1996). "Choosing plants to be grown in a Controlled Environment Life Support System (CELSS) based upon attractive vegetarian diets." Life Support Biosph Sci 2(3-4): 169-179.
Space explorers on the Moon, Mars, or even in a space craft might grow plants in a CELSS to remove CO2 and provide O2 and food. Selection of crops to be studied has been rather arbitrary but should be based on plants that can provide a balanced and attractive, mostly vegetarian diet. Additional selection criteria include ease of growth in artificial environments and sufficient variety provided over long intervals. This article is based on a workshop convened to study vegetarian diets for use in a CELSS. Participants included nutritional scientists, practicing vegetarians, and interested employees of the Johnson Space Center. It was concluded that diets meeting the criteria could be formulated, and a list of suitable crops was compiled.
Salisbury, F. B. and M. A. Clark (1996). "Suggestions for crops grown in controlled ecological life-support systems, based on attractive vegetarian diets." Adv Space Res 18(4-5): 33-39.
Assuming that crops grown in controlled ecological life-support systems (CELSS) should provide a basis for meals that are both nutritious and attractive (to taste and vision), and that CELSS diets on the moon or Mars or in space-craft during long voyages will have to be mostly vegetarian, a workshop was convened at the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, U.S.A. on 19 to 21 January, 1994. Participants consisted of trained nutritionists and others; many of the approximately 18 presenters who discussed possible diets were practicing vegetarians, some for more than two decades. Considering all the presentations, seven conclusions (or points for discussion) could be formulated: nutritious vegetarian diets are relatively easily to formulate, vegetarian diets are healthy, variety is essential in vegetarian diets, some experiences (e.g., Bios-3 and Biosphere 2) are relevant to planning of CELSS diets, physical constraints will limit the choice of crops, a preliminary list of recommended crops can be formulated, and this line of research has some potential practical spinoffs. The list of crops and the reasons for including specific crops might be of interest to professionals in the field of health and nutrition as well as to those who are designing closed ecological systems.
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