Barnard, N. D., et al. (1995). "The medical costs attributable to meat consumption." Prev Med 24(6): 646-655.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the medical costs that are attributable to the health effects of meat consumption. METHODS: The prevalence of hypertension, heart disease, cancer, diabetes, gallstones, obesity, and foodborne illness among omnivores and vegetarians are compared in studies that have controlled for other lifestyle factors, and the corresponding attributable medical costs are calculated in 1992 dollars. RESULTS: Direct health care costs attributable to meat consumption are estimated to be +2.8-8.5 billion for hypertension, +9.5 billion for heart disease, +0-16.5 billion for cancer, +14.0-17.1 billion for diabetes, +0.2-2.4 billion for gallbladder disease, +1.9 billion for obesity-related musculoskeletal disorders, and +0.2-5.5 billion for foodborne illness. The total direct medical costs attributable to meat consumption for 1992 are estimated at +28.6-61.4 billion. CONCLUSION: Health care costs attributable to meat consumption are quantifiable and substantial.
Adlercreutz, H., et al. (1995). "Isotope dilution gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for the determination of unconjugated lignans and isoflavonoids in human feces, with preliminary results in omnivorous and vegetarian women." Anal Biochem 225(1): 101-108.
We describe an isotope dilution gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC/MS) method for the identification and quantitative determination of the lignans enterolactone, enterodiol, and matairesinol and the isoflavonoids daidzein, equol, O-desmethylangolensin, and genistein in feces. Following the addition of deuterated internal standards for all compounds, the feces samples are extracted and purified in several ion exchange chromatographic steps. Following formation of trimethylsilyl ethers, the samples are analyzed by combined capillary column GC/MS in the selective ion monitoring mode and corrected for all losses during the procedure using the deuterated internal standards. Results on the reliability of the method and values for nine Finnish omnivorous and nine vegetarian women are presented.
Almendingen, K., et al. (1995). "[Influence of the diet on cell proliferation in the large bowel and the rectum. Does a strict vegetarian diet reduct the risk of intestinal cancer?]." Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 115(18): 2252-2256.
Colorectal cancers are the most frequent cancer in Norway for men and women combined. Several theories have been suggested as etiological explanations. In this review the influence of dietary factors on the cell proliferation rate has been evaluated. A higher cell proliferation rate is statistically associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer. Foods associated with a lower cell proliferation rate match the staple foods in parts of the world were the incidence of colorectal cancer is low. Vegetarians show a low rate of cell proliferation, and low incidence of colorectal cancer. The low incidence of colorectal cancer among vegetarians may be due not only to the lack of animal foods, but also to several other healthy lifestyle habits. We conclude that a well planned lacto-vegetarian diet or a mixed diet with abundant amounts of vegetables and fruits is beneficial as regards the rate of cell proliferation, and most likely also reduces the risk of developing colorectal cancer.
Beilin, L. J. and V. Burke (1995). "Vegetarian diet components, protein and blood pressure: which nutrients are important?" Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 22(3): 195-198.
1. Evidence that vegetarian dietary patterns lower blood pressure (BP) comes from both population studies and randomized controlled trials in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. 2. The effect has been shown most clearly in those who keep to a strict lacto-ovo vegetarian diet characterized by a relatively low intake of saturated fat, a high polyunsaturated/saturated fat ratio, and a high intake of fruit, vegetables and other fibre containing products. Randomized controlled dietary trials suggest the effects are independent of dietary sodium, additive to that of calorie restriction, and not due to the absence of meat protein per se. Indeed, recent population studies suggest an inverse relationship between dietary protein and BP. 4. Dietary fats, fibre, potassium, magnesium and calcium do not independently seem to account for the effects. A possible role for complex carbohydrate in conjunction with the other dietary factors has yet to be fully explored.
Davis, L. (1995). "Vegetarian diet and tuberculosis in immigrant Asians." Thorax 50(8): 915-916.
Donovan, U. M. and R. S. Gibson (1995). "Iron and zinc status of young women aged 14 to 19 years consuming vegetarian and omnivorous diets." J Am Coll Nutr 14(5): 463-472.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the iron and zinc status of young females, aged 14 to 19 years, consuming vegetarian and omnivorous diets. METHODS: Dietary intakes (via 3-day weighed food records), BMI, and laboratory indices of iron and zinc status were compared in a convenience sample of 79 lacto-ovo-vegetarians (LOV), 16 semi-vegetarians (SV), and 29 omnivorous (OM) females. RESULTS: Twenty-nine percent LOV, 44% SV, and 17% OM had low iron stores (i.e., plasma ferritin < 12 micrograms/L); only 3% had anemia. As well, 24% LOV, 33% SV, and 18% OM had serum zinc < 10.71 mumol/L and 14% LOV, 14% SV, and 17% OM had hair zinc < 1.68 mumol/g. Intakes of iron and ascorbic acid from the weighed food records were associated with serum iron (p < 0.04) and total iron binding capacity (negatively; p < 0.02), respectively, whereas Phy:Zn molar ratios were associated with serum zinc (negatively; p < 0.04). Z-scores for BMI were associated with serum zinc (p < 0.02) and diet type (p < 0.001); serum AP activity was associated with age (p < 0.0001) and oral contraceptive use (p < 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Suboptimal iron and zinc status was attributed to low intakes of poorly available iron and zinc in all dietary groups.
Galli, C., et al. (1995). "Serum lipids and fatty acids in populations on a lake-fish diet or on a vegetarian diet, in Tanzania." Adv Prostaglandin Thromboxane Leukot Res 23: 393-396.
Hayward, A., et al. (1995). "Vegetarian diet and tuberculosis in immigrant Asians." Thorax 50(8): 915.
Janelle, K. C. and S. I. Barr (1995). "Nutrient intakes and eating behavior scores of vegetarian and nonvegetarian women." J Am Diet Assoc 95(2): 180-186, 189, quiz 187-188.
OBJECTIVE: To compare nutrient intakes between vegetarians and nonvegetarians with similar health practices, and to assess relationships with eating behavior scores from the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire. DESIGN: Survey. SETTING: Metropolitan area in western Canada. SUBJECTS: Subjects (n = 45) were participants in a study comparing subclinical menstrual disturbances between vegetarians and nonvegetarians. To be included, women had to be 20 to 40 years old, be weight stable with a body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) of 18 to 25, be a nonsmoker, exercise 7 hours a week or less, consume one alcoholic drink or less a day, and not be using oral contraceptives. Nonvegetarians (n = 22) ate red meat three times a week or more, and vegetarians (n = 23, 8 vegans and 15 lactovegetarians) had excluded all meat, fish, and poultry for 2 years or more. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Nutrient intake assessed by three 3-day diet records; supplement use; body composition; and dietary restraint (conscious limitation of food intake), disinhibition, and hunger assessed by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Anthropometric variables, nutrient intakes, and eating behavior scores were compared between vegetarians and nonvegetarians using unpaired t tests, and among vegans, lactovegetarians, and nonvegetarians using one-way analysis of variance and Duncan's test. Supplement use was compared using chi 2 analysis. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to evaluate relationships between variables. RESULTS: Diets of all women adhered closely to current nutrition recommendations. Vegetarians had lower protein and cholesterol intakes and higher percentage of energy as carbohydrate, ratio of polyunsaturated fat to saturated fat (P:S ratio), and fiber intake than nonvegetarians. Vegetarians had lower riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-12, zinc, and sodium intakes and higher folate, vitamin C, and copper intakes. However, many differences were not apparent between the subgroup of lactovegetarians and nonvegetarians (their P:S ratios and carbohydrate, fiber, riboflavin, folate, vitamin C, and copper intakes were similar). In contrast, differences existed between the lactovegetarian and the vegan subgroups. Supplement use was similar between groups, except for greater vitamin C use by vegetarians. Vegetarians were leaner than nonvegetarians, had lower restraint scores, and had significant associations between restraint and BMI (r = .49; P < .05) and energy per kilogram body weight (r = -.60; P < .01). APPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS: Current nutrition recommendations can be attained by vegetarians and nonvegetarians alike, but nutrient intakes cannot be inferred from dietary pattern. In this study, the intakes of health-conscious nonvegetarians and lactovegetarians were more similar than the intakes of lactovegetarians and vegans. Vegans' calcium and vitamin B-12 intakes may need attention. Vegetarians' lower restraint scores suggest that they are not at increased risk for eating disorders.
Joshi, S. and V. Agte (1995). "Digestibility of dietary fiber components in vegetarian men." Plant Foods Hum Nutr 48(1): 39-44.
Digestibility of fiber components namely neutral detergent fiber (total content of cellwall) cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin are estimated in 14 healthy vegetarian men during adlibitum feeding and at 3 energy levels namely 2526, 2868 and 3290 kcals/day. Values of digestibility for adlibitum experiments were 34.17 +/- 2.3 for neutral detergent fiber (NDF), 30.1 +/- 3.9 for cellulose and 53.4 +/- 3.0 for hemicellulose and 8.1 +/- 2.6 for lignin. There was a considerable variability in digestibility of fiber components between individuals.
Juttelstad, A. (1995). "Vegetarian offerings vary with clientele." Healthc Foodserv 5(3): 16-17.
Kjeldsen-Kragh, J., et al. (1995). "Antibodies against dietary antigens in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with fasting and a one-year vegetarian diet." Clin Exp Rheumatol 13(2): 167-172.
OBJECTIVE: To compare serum antibody activity against dietary antigens in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and healthy controls, and to examine whether anti-food antibody activity fluctuated with disease activity during a trial of fasting followed by a one-year vegetarian diet. METHODS: Serum IgG, IgA and IgM antibody activity against several food antigens was measured by an enzyme immunoassay. Abnormally high antibody activity was defined as values above the 90th percentile of the measurements in 30 healthy controls. Serum IgE antibody activity was measured by a radioallergosorbent test. RESULTS: During the trial 10 of 27 patients suspected that certain food items aggravated their arthritis symptoms. Elevated antibody activity against one or more of the dietary antigens was found in all RA patients, but these measurements could not be used to predict which food would aggravate the symptoms. Elevated IgG and IgA antibody activity against alpha-lactalbumin was found in a significantly larger number of RA patients than in controls. With the exception of one patient, there was no concordance between the clinical course and antibody activity against the various dietary antigens. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that a systemic humoral immune response against food items is probably not involved in the pathogenesis of RA.
Kjeldsen-Kragh, J., et al. (1995). "Inhibition of growth of Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli in urine in response to fasting and vegetarian diet." APMIS 103(11): 818-822.
It has recently been shown that serum antibody levels against Proteus mirabilis decreased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who improved clinically during treatment with 7-10 days of fasting followed by a one-year vegetarian diet. As P. mirabilis is commonly implicated in urinary tract infections, this study was carried out to examine whether fasting and vegetarian diet may influence the growth of P. mirabilis and Escherichia coli in urine. Urine samples were collected from 22 patients who were referred to a health farm for various reasons. The dietary regimen recommended by the health farm consisted of fasting for 7 to 10 days followed by a vegan diet. The growth of both bacteria in urine samples collected after 8 days was significantly slower than in samples collected at baseline. In urine samples collected after 18 days growth was also reduced, although not significantly for E. coli. Our results show that dietary manipulation may reduce the ability of urine to support the growth of P. mirabilis and E. coli.
Kjeldsen-Kragh, J., et al. (1995). "Changes in laboratory variables in rheumatoid arthritis patients during a trial of fasting and one-year vegetarian diet." Scand J Rheumatol 24(2): 85-93.
We have previously reported that significant improvement may be obtained in rheumatoid arthritis patients by fasting followed by a vegetarian diet for one year. The present study was carried out to examine to what extent biochemical and immunological variables changed during the clinical trial of fasting and vegetarian diet. For the patients who were randomised to the vegetarian diet there was a significant decrease in platelet count, leukocyte count, calprotectin, total IgG, IgM rheumatoid factor (RF), C3-activation products, and the complement components C3 and C4 after one month of treatment. None of the measured parameters changed significantly during this period in the group of omnivores. The course of 14 of 15 measured variables favored the vegetarians compared with the omnivores, but the difference was only significant for leukocyte count, IgM RF, and the complement components C3 and C4. Most of the laboratory variables declined considerably in the vegetarians who improved according to clinical variables, indicating a substantial reduction in inflammatory activity. The leukocyte count, however, decreased in the vegetarians irrespective of the clinical results. Thus, the decline in leukocyte count may be attributed to vegetarian diet per se and not to the reduction in disease activity. The results of the present study are in accordance with the findings from the clinical trial, namely that dietary treatment can reduce the disease activity in some patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Kjeldsen-Kragh, J., et al. (1995). "Decrease in anti-Proteus mirabilis but not anti-Escherichia coli antibody levels in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with fasting and a one year vegetarian diet." Ann Rheum Dis 54(3): 221-224.
OBJECTIVE: To measure Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli antibody levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during treatment by vegetarian diet. METHODS: Sera were collected from 53 RA patients who took part in a controlled clinical trial of fasting and a one year vegetarian diet. P mirabilis and E coli antibody levels were measured by an indirect immunofluorescence technique and an enzyme immunoassay, respectively. RESULTS: The patients on the vegetarian diet had a significant reduction in the mean anti-proteus titres at all time points during the study, compared with baseline values (all p < 0.05). No significant change in titre was observed in patients who followed an omnivorous diet. The decrease in anti-proteus titre was greater in the patients who responded well to the vegetarian diet compared with diet non-responders and omnivores. The total IgG concentration and levels of antibody against E coli, however, were almost unchanged in all patient groups during the trial. The decrease from baseline in proteus antibody levels correlated significantly (p < 0.001) with the decrease in a modified Stoke disease activity index. CONCLUSION: The decrease in P mirabilis antibody levels in the diet responders and the correlation between the decrease in proteus antibody level and decrease in disease activity supports the suggestion of an aetiopathogenetic role for P mirabilis in RA.
McDougall, J., et al. (1995). "Rapid reduction of serum cholesterol and blood pressure by a twelve-day, very low fat, strictly vegetarian diet." J Am Coll Nutr 14(5): 491-496.
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of a strictly vegetarian, very low-fat diet on cardiac risk factor modification. METHODS: Five hundred men and women, participants in an intensive 12-day live-in program, were studied. The program focused on dietary modification, moderate exercise, and stress management at a hospital-based health-center. RESULTS: During this short time period, cardiac risk factors improved: there was an average reduction of total serum cholesterol of 11% (p < 0.001), of blood pressure of 6% (p < 0.001) and a weight loss of 2.5 kg for men and 1 kg for women. Serum triglycerides did not increase except for two subgroups: females age > or = 65 years with serum cholesterol < 6.5 mmol/L and for females 50 to 64 years with baseline serum cholesterol between 5.2-6.5 mmol/L. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol measured on 66 subjects decreased by 19%. CONCLUSION: A strict, very low-fat vegetarian diet free from all animal products combined with lifestyle changes that include exercise and weight loss is an effective way to lower serum cholesterol and blood pressure.
Ritter, M. M. and W. O. Richter (1995). "[Effects of a vegetarian life style on health]." Fortschr Med 113(16): 239-242.
A vegetarian diet has a positive effect on various risk factors for coronary artery disease: these include usually lower average body weight, lower total and LDL cholesterol levels, and lower blood pressure. In conjunction with a generally more healthy way of life (more exercise, less alcohol and tobacco use), vegetarians have roughly 30% reduction in overall mortality. The prevalence of bronchial, colon and breast cancer is also lower. In particular in its strict form (total vegetarianism or veganism), a vegetarian regimen may lead to deficiency disorders, in particular vitamin B12 deficiency, which may occur especially in vegetarian children, pregnant or lactating women. Overall, however, a vegetarian regimen has a more beneficial effect on health than the usual Central European diet.
Sanders, T. A. (1995). "Vegetarian diets and children." Pediatr Clin North Am 42(4): 955-965.
Although the general health and development of vegan and vegetarian children seem to be normal, there may be subtle differences compared with omnivores. They are at increased risk of iron deficiency, and impaired psychomotor development associated with iron deficiency has been reported in macrobiotic infants. Fortunately, this impairment is not permanent, and follow-up studies have reported higher-than-average intelligence quotients among older macrobiotic children. Several other hazards of vegetarian diets have been identified, including vitamin B12 deficiency, rickets, and a bulky diet that can restrict energy intake in the first few years of life; however, these pitfalls can be avoided easily, and children can be successfully reared on vegetarian diets.
Shaw, N. S., et al. (1995). "A vegetarian diet rich in soybean products compromises iron status in young students." J Nutr 125(2): 212-219.
The iron status of young Chinese Buddhist vegetarians (23 men and 32 women) and nonvegetarian students (20 men and 39 women from a medical college) was investigated by dietary assessment of iron intake and hematological measurement of biochemical indices including hemoglobin, plasma iron, transferrin, transferrin saturation and plasma ferritin. A characteristic of the vegetarian diet in this study was the replacement of meat by soybean products. Results of the dietary assessment showed that the average iron density of the diets ranged from 1.9 to 2.2 mg/MJ, with no difference between the vegetarian and nonvegetarian diets. Daily iron intake was similar in both vegetarian and nonvegetarian men. However, iron intake was significantly higher in female vegetarians than nonvegetarians, averaging 104 and 78% of the RDA, respectively. Results of blood analysis showed that, for both sexes, the median plasma ferritin concentration of the vegetarians (male 47 micrograms/L and female 12 micrograms/L) was about half the level of the nonvegetarians (male 91 micrograms/L and female 27 micrograms/L). Occurrence and risk of iron deficiency are more prevalent in vegetarians. Correlation between plasma ferritin concentration and years of vegetarian practice in vegetarian men was marginally significant (r = -0.38, P = 0.077). We conclude that a vegetarian diet that is rich in soybean products and restricted in animal foods is limited in bioavailable iron and is not adequate for maintaining iron balance in men and women.
Siener, R. and A. Hesse (1995). "Influence of a mixed and a vegetarian diet on urinary magnesium excretion and concentration." Br J Nutr 73(5): 783-790.
Urinary Mg is suggested to be an effective inhibitor of the formation and growth of calcium oxalate stones. In order to examine the influence of variations in dietary Mg on urinary Mg excretion, ten healthy male subjects were kept on two different standard diets for 5 d each. In the course of the test period, 24 h urine samples were collected. Diets 1 and 2 were calculated according to the dietary recommendations of the German Society of Nutrition (Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Ernahrung, 1986). Diet 1 was established as a model of a balanced mixed diet, whereas diet 2 represented an ovo-lacto-vegetarian meal plan. Diets 1 and 2 were isoenergetic with equal amounts of the main nutrients, estimated from food tables, and a constant fluid intake. In contrast to the content of Mg (336 mg) and dietary fibre (28 g) of diet 1, diet 2 was rich in Mg (553 mg) and dietary fibre (52 g). On the ingestion of diet 1, renal Mg excretion was 5.09 (SEM 0.35) mmol on the control day and increased slightly but not significantly to 5.40 (SEM 0.52) mmol on the corresponding day on diet 2. Urinary Mg excretion as a percentage of estimated dietary intake was about double on the balanced mixed diet (37%) than on the Mg-rich vegetarian diet (24%). As both diets contained equal amounts of most nutrients, these results indicate a lower excretion rate of Mg from the vegetarian diet than from the mixed diet.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Skoldstam, L. (1995). "[Placebo effect or not? Vegetarian food helped the patients with rheumatism]." Lakartidningen 92(46): 4334-4336.
Strachan, D. P., et al. (1995). "Vegetarian diet as a risk factor for tuberculosis in immigrant south London Asians." Thorax 50(2): 175-180.
BACKGROUND: In a previous retrospective study of tuberculosis in south London among Asian immigrants from the Indian subcontinent Hindu Asians were found to have a significantly increased risk for tuberculosis compared with Muslims. This finding has been further investigated by examining the role of socioeconomic and lifestyle variables, including diet, as risk factors for tuberculosis in Asian immigrants from the Indian subcontinent resident in south London. METHODS: Using a case-control study technique Asian immigrants from the Indian subcontinent diagnosed with tuberculosis during the past 10 years and two Asian control groups (community and outpatient clinic controls) from the Indian subcontinent were investigated. Cases and community controls were approached by letter. A structured questionnaire concerning a range of demographic, migration, socioeconomic, dietary, and health topics was administered by a single trained interviewer to subjects (56 cases and 100 controls) who agreed to participate. RESULTS: The results confirmed earlier findings that Hindu Asians had an increased risk of tuberculosis compared with Muslims. However, further analysis revealed that religion had no independent influence after adjustment for vegetarianism (common among Hindu Asians). Unadjusted odds ratios for tuberculosis among vegetarians were 2.7 (95% CI 1.1 to 6.4) using community controls, and 4.3 (95% CI 1.8 to 10.4) using clinic controls. There was a trend of increasing risk of tuberculosis with decreasing frequency of meat or fish consumption. Lactovegetarians had an 8.5 fold risk (95% CI 1.6 to 45.4) compared with daily meat/fish eaters. Adjustment for a range of other socioeconomic, migration, and lifestyle variables made little difference to the relative risks derived using either community or clinic controls. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that a vegetarian diet is an independent risk factor for tuberculosis in immigrant Asians. The mechanism is unexplained. However, vitamin D deficiency, common among vegetarian Asians in south London, is known to affect immunological competence. Decreased immunocompetence associated with a vegetarian diet might result in increased mycobacterial reactivation among Asians from the Indian subcontinent.
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