(1993). "I'm six and a half months pregnant and have been predominantly a vegetarian for eight years." Birth Gaz 9(2): 36.
Adlercreutz, H., et al. (1993). "Quantitative determination of lignans and isoflavonoids in plasma of omnivorous and vegetarian women by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry." Scand J Clin Lab Invest Suppl 215: 5-18.
The first quantitative method for the determination of both lignans and isoflavonoid phytoestrogens in plasma is presented. Using ion-exchange chromatography the diphenols are separated into two fractions 1) the biologically "active" fraction containing the free compounds + mono- and disulfates and 2) the biologically "inactive" fraction containing the mono- and diglucuronides and the sulfoglucuronides. After hydrolysis the fractions are further purified by solid phase extraction and ion exchange chromatography. Losses during the complete procedure are corrected for using radioactive estrogen conjugates during the first steps and later by adding deuterated internal standards of all compounds measured (matairesinol, enterodiol, enterolactone, daidzein, O-desmethylangolensin, equol, and genistein). The final determination is carried out by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode (GC/MS/SIM). The diphenols may be measured at concentrations as low as 0.2 to 1.0 nmol/l. Results of plasma analyses of all compounds in 27 pre- and postmenopausal omnivorous and vegetarian women are presented for the first time. The most important findings are that the free+sulfate fraction is low for genistein (3.8% of total), but as much as 21-25% of enterolactone and enterodiol occurs in this fraction. A good correlation between plasma and urine values was found. Total concentrations of individual compounds vary greatly between the subjects (from pmol/l to mumol/l), the vegetarians having higher values, particularly one vegan subject. The highest total enterolactone concentration value exceeded 1 mumol/l. It is concluded that a highly specific method for the assay of 3 lignans and 4 isoflavonoids in plasma has been developed. This method will be useful in future studies of lignan and isoflavonoid metabolism.
Bakan, R., et al. (1993). "Dietary zinc intake of vegetarian and nonvegetarian patients with anorexia nervosa." Int J Eat Disord 13(2): 229-233.
Anorexia nervosa (AN) and zinc deficiency, found most frequently in young females, have a number of symptoms in common. These include weight loss, alterations in taste and appetite, depression, and amenorrhea. Approximately half of anorexia nervosa patients (ANs) are vegetarian (VANs), a practice that may increase their risk for zinc deficiency. This study compared the dietary intake of zinc and related nutrients in 9 outpatient VANs with that of 11 outpatient nonvegetarian patients with anorexia nervosa (NVANs). VANs reported significantly lower (p < .05) dietary intakes of zinc, fat, and protein, and a significantly higher (p < .05) intake of calories from carbohydrates than NVANs. There were no significant differences between the groups in dietary intake of calories, calcium, copper, iron, or magnesium. These findings indicate that zinc intake should be routinely assessed in VANs and that zinc supplementation of their diets may be indicated.
Beilin, L. J. (1993). "Vegetarian diets, alcohol consumption, and hypertension." Ann N Y Acad Sci 676: 83-91.
Brewer, G. J., et al. (1993). "Does a vegetarian diet control Wilson's disease?" J Am Coll Nutr 12(5): 527-530.
The literature indicates that copper (Cu) is less bioavailable from a vegetarian as compared to mixed diet. Further, several groups, including ours, find rather marginal average Cu intake in the typical American diet. For example, our data indicate that Wilson's disease patients on a typical American diet ingest only about 25% more Cu than is required. This suggests that a vegetarian diet, if it reduced bioavailability by about 25% or more, would be an adequate maintenance therapy for Wilson's disease. Observations in two of our patients, who were on lactovegetarian diets by choice, and who were almost totally noncompliant with anti-Cu therapy, support this view. These observations suggest that vegetarian diets may be a management tool for Wilson's disease. They also further emphasize the marginal Cu intake in American diets, and suggest that some seemingly healthy people, particularly vegetarians, may be at risk for mild Cu deficiency.
Clifford, M. (1993). "The vegetarian opportunity." Food Manage 28(9): 40.
Draper, A., et al. (1993). "The energy and nutrient intakes of different types of vegetarian: a case for supplements?" Br J Nutr 69(1): 3-19.
Vegetarians of three types were studied in Greater London: thirty-four meat-avoiders, fifty-two lacto-ovo-vegetarians, and thirty-eight vegans. Weighed dietary intake measures were made over 3 d. Cereals were the mainstay of the diet, supplemented by dairy products (demi-vegetarians and lacto-ovo-vegetarians), vegetables and fruit, and soya-bean products (vegans). Many vegans progressed by stages to complete avoidance of animal foods; some had retreated, but most were highly committed. Demi-vegetarians were the least involved in a 'vegetarian lifestyle'. All groups had mean energy intakes close to the current dietary reference values (DRV), with adequate protein intakes. Only vegans had fat intakes close to current recommendations; all groups had high dietary polyunsaturated:saturated fatty acid ratios. Mean intakes of all micronutrients studied for demi- and lacto-ovo-vegetarians met the UK DRV. Intakes of iodine, riboflavin, and vitamin B12 for vegans were below DRV; more than half considered their diets supplied all necessary vitamins. About 25% took some type of dietary supplement during the survey. The impact of low I intakes should be further studied, and it is recommended that 'new' vegetarians and vegans should use appropriate dietary supplements.
Dwyer, J. (1993). "Vegetarian diets for treating nephrotic syndrome." Nutr Rev 51(2): 44-46.
Vegetarian diets based on soy-protein appeared to be effective in treating the hyperlipidemia of nephrotic syndrome. Whether there is a unique effect of soy or whether all very low-fat, low-saturated-fat, low-cholesterol, and low-protein diets have similar effects remains unknown.
Gentile, M. G., et al. (1993). "Treatment of proteinuric patients with a vegetarian soy diet and fish oil." Clin Nephrol 40(6): 315-320.
Our aim was to determine whether a longer period of treatment with a vegetarian soy diet with addition of fish oil supplements would accentuate the beneficial effects on hyperlipidemia and proteinuria of nephrotic patients we found in a previous study. After an 8-week baseline period on free diet, patients were randomly allocated either on soy diet alone (SD) or to SD plus 5 g/day of fish oil (SD + FO) orally for two months. Then they crossed over to the other treatment for two additional months. They finally resumed eating the free diet for 3 months. We selected 20 outpatients with chronic glomerulonephritis, proteinuria in the nephrotic range, fasting serum cholesterol > 250 mg/dl, mean serum creatinine concentrations 1.75 +/- 0.23 mg/dl. Serum lipid profile, urinary protein loss and nutritional parameters were monitored. With the soy diet, we obtained a significant decrease both of hyperlipidemia and of proteinuria. The effect of the soy diet on proteinuria increased over the 4 months. The addition of a moderate amount (5 g/day) of fish oil in a randomized cross-over design had no further beneficial effect. Stability of serum albumin, transferrin and the body mass index documented good nutritional status. In conclusion, the dietary manipulation with our vegetarian soy diet confirmed the beneficial effects on hyperlipidemia and proteinuria of nephrotic patients. Such effects persisted and even ameliorated after 4 months of diet. The addition of moderate oral supplements of fish oil did not potentiate the beneficial effect.
Gopalan, S., et al. (1993). "Adequacy of vegetarian diets for optimal nutrition of mother and child." Indian Pediatr 30(11): 1379-1386.
Haugen, M. A., et al. (1993). "The influence of fast and vegetarian diet on parameters of nutritional status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis." Clin Rheumatol 12(1): 62-69.
Nutritional status was studied over a period of 13 months in 34 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Seventeen patients fasted for 7-10 days, were then transferred to a gluten-free vegan diet for 3.5 months and finally to a lactovegetarian diet for 9 months. The remaining 17 patients followed a "normal" diet. After one month, the values for body mass index (BMI) and triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) were significantly reduced in the diet group compared with the values at inclusion (p < 0.001), whereas upper arm muscle area (UAMA) was not significantly reduced. Evaluation of the whole study course revealed a significantly lower BMI (p = 0.04) and TSF (p < 0.01) in the diet group compared with the control group. The concentration of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) was significantly reduced in the diet group after one month compared with the value at inclusion (p = 0.01), but the overall difference between the two groups was not significant. There were no overall significant differences with regard to VAMA, concentration of serum albumin, haemoglobin, ferritin, zinc and copper between the two groups. Thus fast, followed by diet manipulations for one year, had a minor impact on nutritional status in patients with RA.
Havala, S. and J. Dwyer (1993). "Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets." J Am Diet Assoc 93(11): 1317-1319.
Hostmark, A. T., et al. (1993). "Reduced plasma fibrinogen, serum peroxides, lipids, and apolipoproteins after a 3-week vegetarian diet." Plant Foods Hum Nutr 43(1): 55-61.
The influence of a 3-week vegetarian diet and fasting on serum concentration of peroxides, lipids, apolipoproteins, and plasma fibrinogen was studied in ten middle-aged fibromyalgia/fibrositis patients (eight women, two men). Mean serum peroxide concentration (estimated as thiobarbituric acid reacting substances) was reduced from 3.60 +/- 0.14 to 2.82 +/- 0.15 umol/l (p = 0.01) and plasma fibrinogen from 3.33 +/- 0.25 to 2.74 +/- 0.15 g/l (p = 0.02). Serum total cholesterol fell from 6.61 +/- 0.50 to 4.83 +/- 0.35 mmol/l (p < 0.0001), apolipoprotein B from 1.77 +/- 0.14 to 1.31 +/- 0.11 g/l (p < 0.0001), and apolipoprotein A from 1.41 +/- 0.09 to 1.23 +/- 0.05 g/l (p = 0.03). High density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration also decreased somewhat (from 1.26 +/- 0.09 to 1.07 +/- 0.04 mmol/l, p = 0.03) An atherogenic index, reflecting the balance between low and high density lipoproteins, was reduced by 31% (from 5.74 +/- 0.79 to 3.97 +/- 0.60, p = 0.02). The results suggest that vegetarian diet/fasting may have a beneficial influence on the concentration of serum peroxides and plasma fibrinogen concentration, and on the serum level of several lipoprotein-related coronary risk factors.
Krajcovicova-Kudlackova, M. and L. Ozdin (1993). "[The effect of a vegetarian diet on protein and fat metabolism values in rats of various ages]." Vet Med (Praha) 38(7): 413-425.
Male len rats at the age of 30-140 days were administered a diet with an optimum content of nutrients in dependence on their age in which the source of proteins was this: milk casein (essential acid to nonessential acid ratio E/N = 0.79), soya (defatted and without inhibitors of digestive enzymes, E/N = 0.73), wheat gluten (E/N = 0.30), and their mixture (with one-third portions of each protein, E/N = 0.54). The dietary protein values were adjusted to optimum values according to the quality with respect to casein (without amino acid fortification). Protein utilization (net protein ratio NPR) was determined in weekly intervals, triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations in the blood serum were determined on the 70th and 140th day of age. A proteosynthesis rate was determined isotopically as L-/U-14C/-tyrosine incorporation in the protein fractions of liver and muscle in 12 hours after intraperitoneal application of the isotope in the rats in the period of rapid growth and in the adult rats on a casein--gluten diet. The isotopically determined values of tyrosine in the liver and muscles are significantly lower for the age of 70 days and gluten diet in comparison with the casein values. The proteosynthesis rate at the age of 140 days is identical. A direct relation was also found between protein utilization and the values of the amino acid score of limiting amino acids AS and the potential biological value of the diet BHp in growing rats at the age of 30-98 days (AS-K/Met + Cys/2/67, S/Met + Cys/2/63, G/Lys/28, mixture/Met + Cys/2/67; BHp-K 70.0; S 65.1; G 54.1; mixture 77.0; NPR/70 days/-K 2.00; S 1.48; G 1.22; mixture 2.07). In adult rats (from the age of 105 days) the utilization of the diet from vegetable sources is equalized with the utilization of the diet from animal sources, hence it does not depend on the aminogram quality. The results demonstrate the insufficiency of vegetable sources of food with respect to proteosynthesis and the content of limiting amino acids (decisive for the synthesis of peptide chains) in the period of the organism development. In adult rats the values of the aminograms of food vegetable sources are sufficiently high with respect to the lower rate of proteosynthesis (not for the growth but for the organism maintenance, tissue regeneration).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Lutzner, H. (1993). "[The importance of fasting and vegetarian diet in rheumatic diseases]." Z Arztl Fortbild (Jena) 87(3): 223-228.
Monfort-Gouraud, M., et al. (1993). "[Severe megaloblastic anemia in child breast fed by a vegetarian mother]." Ann Pediatr (Paris) 40(1): 28-31.
The case of a 15-month-old, strictly breast-fed infant whose mother had been following a vegetarian diet for ten years is reported. The infant had severe megaloblastic anemia with an arrest in growth, hypotonia, and failure of psychomotor development. The very low levels of vitamin B12 in the infant's serum and mother's milk confirmed the diagnosis. Management of such cases consists in administration of vitamin B12 supplements, with a blood transfusion if needed. Other concomitant deficiencies should be looked for. The outcome is rapidly favorable. The patient reported here is now four years of age and has normal statural growth and psychomotor development.
Sciarrone, S. E., et al. (1993). "Ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate responses to vegetarian meals." J Hypertens 11(3): 277-285.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of a vegetarian diet on daytime ambulatory (Accutracker) blood pressures and heart rates, and to relate these to the estimated peak in plasma glucose to determine whether low-glycaemic-index diets reduce sympathetic activity in response to differences in postprandial glucose and insulin. DESIGN: The subjects were matched for age and body mass index and randomly assigned to one of two parallel diet groups. SETTING: Clinical. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-one normotensive non-vegetarian male hospital workers volunteered for the study and 20 completed it. INTERVENTION: After 2 weeks of baseline measurement the subjects followed an omnivorous or a lacto-ovovegetarian diet for 6 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Daytime ambulatory blood pressures and heart rate, and postbreakfast catecholamines, insulin and glucose. RESULTS: Ambulatory systolic blood pressure and heart rates were lower in the vegetarian group during the working day. The preprandial rise in diastolic pressure was attenuated on the vegetarian diet. There were no differences in plasma catecholamine, glucose or insulin levels sampled after breakfast on the two dietary regimes. CONCLUSIONS: The blood pressure-lowering effect of a lacto-ovovegetarian diet, which occurs throughout the working day, is associated with lower heart rates, suggesting a central nervous or cardiac mechanism. The possibility that the lower glycaemic index of a lacto-ovovegetarian diet has some effect needs to be investigated further in relation to major meal-times and studied in both normotensive and hypertensive subjects.
van Faassen, A., et al. (1993). "Bile acids and pH values in total feces and in fecal water from habitually omnivorous and vegetarian subjects." Am J Clin Nutr 58(6): 917-922.
Twenty habitually omnivorous subjects and 19 habitually lactoovovegetarian subjects aged 59-65 y collected feces during 4 consecutive days. The concentrations of bile acids in total feces did not differ between the omnivores and vegetarians, but the bile acid concentrations in fecal water were significantly lower in the vegetarians. The concentration of the colorectal cancer-predicting bile acid deoxycholic acid in fecal water was explained by the intake of saturated fat and the daily fecal wet weight (r2 = 0.50). Fecal pH did not differ between the omnivores and vegetarians. This variable was significantly (P < 0.05) explained by the intake of calcium (r2 = 0.30); 24-h fecal wet weight and defecation frequency were significantly higher in the vegetarians. In conclusion, our vegetarian subjects had a lower concentration of deoxycholic acid in fecal water, higher fecal wet weight, and higher defecation frequency than the omnivorous subjects.
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