Cerrato, P. L. (1991). "Becoming a vegetarian: the risks and the benefits." RN 54(3): 73-77.
Jibani, M. M., et al. (1991). "Predominantly vegetarian diet in patients with incipient and early clinical diabetic nephropathy: effects on albumin excretion rate and nutritional status." Diabet Med 8(10): 949-953.
Several studies have suggested that dietary protein quality may be an important determinant in the natural history of renal disease. We have therefore studied the effects of a predominantly vegetarian diet in eight patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus and an albumin excretion rate (AER) in excess of 30 micrograms min-1. The AER was measured after an 8-week run-in period on the patient's usual diet, and again after 8 weeks of a predominantly vegetarian diet in which the proportion of vegetable protein was supplemented in order to minimize the reduction in total dietary protein intake. The median fractional albumin clearance fell during the study from an initial value of 188 x 10(-+) (range 58-810 x 10(-4)) at the end of the run-in period to 87 x 10(-4) (23-829 x 10(-4)) at the end of the period on low animal protein diet (difference 79 x 10(-4) (95% Cl 9-149 x 10(-4)), p less than 0.05). The AER then returned to values similar to those obtained at the beginning of the study after a further 8 weeks in those patients returning to their usual diet. No significant changes in blood glucose control or in arterial pressure were observed. A predominantly vegetarian diet may therefore have important beneficial effects on diabetic nephropathy without the need for a heavily restricted total protein intake.
Johnsen, J. B. and V. Fonnebo (1991). "[Vitamin B 12 deficiency in strict vegetarian diet. Why do some people choose such a diet, and what will they do in case of vitamin B 12 deficiency]." Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 111(1): 62-64.
Nine persons in the county of Troms, Norway, were interviewed on their strict vegetarian diet. Improved health was indicated as the main reason for their choice of diet, but religion was a contributing reason for some. Most of the study persons would increase the intake of vitamin B12 if a deficiency state were to occur. One person reported, however, that she would not regard vitamin B12 deficiency as a health problem. The interviews disclosed beliefs regarding human physiology that are very far removed from standard scientific knowledge. The article indicates that communication between patient and the health care system may be difficult in such circumstances. Problems of communication would probably be minimized if the patient had a thorough understanding of human physiology and the health worker a thorough understanding of the reasons for the patient's choice of diet.
Kjeldsen-Kragh, J., et al. (1991). "Controlled trial of fasting and one-year vegetarian diet in rheumatoid arthritis." Lancet 338(8772): 899-902.
Fasting is an effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, but most patients relapse on reintroduction of food. The effect of fasting followed by one year of a vegetarian diet was assessed in a randomised, single-blind controlled trial. 27 patients were allocated to a four-week stay at a health farm. After an initial 7-10 day subtotal fast, they were put on an individually adjusted gluten-free vegan diet for 3.5 months. The food was then gradually changed to a lactovegetarian diet for the remainder of the study. A control group of 26 patients stayed for four weeks at a convalescent home, but ate an ordinary diet throughout the whole study period. After four weeks at the health farm the diet group showed a significant improvement in number of tender joints, Ritchie's articular index, number of swollen joints, pain score, duration of morning stiffness, grip strength, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, and a health assessment questionnaire score. In the control group, only pain score improved score. In the control group, only pain score improved significantly. The benefits in the diet group were still present after one year, and evaluation of the whole course showed significant advantages for the diet group in all measured indices. This dietary regimen seems to be a useful supplement to conventional medical treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
Lloyd, T., et al. (1991). "Urinary hormonal concentrations and spinal bone densities of premenopausal vegetarian and nonvegetarian women." Am J Clin Nutr 54(6): 1005-1010.
We evaluated the relationships among nutrition, hormone concentrations, and bone density of the spine in 27 vegetarian and 37 nonvegetarian premenopausal women. The two groups were indistinguishable with respect to age, height, weight, menarche, years of formal education, and medical histories. The frequency of menstrual irregularity was significantly higher in the vegetarian group. The bone densities of the vegetarians and the nonvegetarians were not significantly different. Caffeine intake in both groups had a positive effect on urinary calcium excretion, but no association was observed between bone density and caffeine intake. Total fat, monosaturated fat, and oleic acid intake were positively associated with luteinizing hormone concentrations of the vegetarians only. Overall, the differences in dietary practices of these premenopausal vegetarian and nonvegetarian women did not appear to have major effects on bone biology or reproductive history.
Oleneva, V. A., et al. (1991). "[Vegetarian diets, the eating of raw food, fasting and some other "mod" diets]." Med Sestra 50(9): 46-48.
Pedersen, A. B., et al. (1991). "Menstrual differences due to vegetarian and nonvegetarian diets." Am J Clin Nutr 53(4): 879-885.
We studied 41 nonvegetarian and 34 vegetarian premenopausal women whom we closely screened. The two groups were indistinguishable with respect to height, weight, body mass index, and menarche. The incidence of menstrual irregularity was 4.9% among nonvegetarians and 26.5% among vegetarians (P = 0.009). The vegetarian group consumed significantly greater amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids, carbohydrates, vitamin B-6, and dietary fiber whereas the nonvegetarians reported greater intakes of saturated fatty acids, protein, cholesterol, caffeine and alcohol. Logistic-regression analyses showed that the probability of menstrual regularity among all study subjects (n = 75) was positively associated with increasing protein/kJ and increasing cholesterol/kJ intakes. The probability of being menstrually regular was negatively associated with increasing dietary fiber/kJ and increasing magnesium/kJ intakes. These results are consistent with the notion that menstrual regularity can be influenced by specific dietary nutrients that may have direct effects or exert their effects by modulating circulating sex steroid status.
Richter, E. A., et al. (1991). "Immune parameters in male atheletes after a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet and a mixed Western diet." Med Sci Sports Exerc 23(5): 517-521.
The influence of a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet versus a meat-rich Western diet on in vitro measures of immune function was studied in eight male endurance athletes. Subjects consumed two different diets for 2 x 6 wk, separated by 4 wk on an ad libitum diet, in a cross-over design. Both diets consisted of 57 energy % (E%) carbohydrates, 14 E% protein and 29 E% fat. One diet was a mixed meat-rich diet (M) prepared with 69% animal protein sources, whereas the other diet (V) was a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet prepared with 82% vegetable protein sources. Blood for determination of leukocyte subpopulations and in vitro function was collected at the end of each diet period 36 h after the last training bout. Fiber content and P/S ratio of fatty acids were twice as high on the V diet as on the M diet. Training volume was similar on the two diets, and maximal aerobic capacity did not change during diet periods. The number of CD3+ (pan T-cells), CD8+ (mainly T suppressor cells), CD4+ (mainly T helper cells), CD16+ (natural killer cells), and CD14+ (monocytes) was similar after the two different diets. Similarly, proliferations of mononuclear cells after stimulation with interleukin-2 (IL-2), phytohemagglutinin, and purified derivative of tuberculin (PPD), as well as activity of natural killer cells in the unstimulated state and after stimulation with IL-2, indomethacin, and interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), were identical after the two diet periods.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Sabate, J., et al. (1991). "Attained height of lacto-ovo vegetarian children and adolescents." Eur J Clin Nutr 45(1): 51-58.
The relationship between diet and attained height was studied in children and adolescents in Southern California. Diet pattern was determined from an extensive food frequency questionnaire in 1765 Caucasian children of 7-18 years, attending state schools (452 m and 443 f) and Seventh-day Adventist schools (427 m and 443 f). The major difference in diet pattern between state and Adventist school children was in meat consumption. The Adventist children were split evenly between three categories of frequency in meat consumption (less than 1/week, 1/week-less than 1/d, and greater than or equal to 1/d), while 92 percent of state school children consumed meat daily. Vegetarians (those consuming meat less than 1/week) differed significantly in the consumption of other major food groups, such as fruit and vegetables. All school and diet subgroups were at or above the 50th percentile of the National Center for Health Statistics. Age-adjusted regression analysis showed that on average Adventist vegetarian children were taller than their meat-consuming classmates (2.5 and 2.0 cm for boys and girls, respectively). These results did not change materially when adjusting for other food groups. Nor did adjustment for parental height and socioeconomic factors in a sub-sample of 518 children. The results indicate that vegetarian children and adolescents on a balanced diet grow at least as tall as children who consume meat.
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