(1987). "Vegetarian thermodynamics." West J Med 146(5): 21.
Ashkenazi, S., et al. (1987). "Vitamin B12 deficiency due to a strictly vegetarian diet in adolescence." Clin Pediatr (Phila) 26(12): 662-663.
A 14-year-old white girl suffered from severe neurologic disturbances caused by vitamin B12 deficiency, due to failure to provide vitamin B12 supplementation to a strictly vegetarian diet. The disturbances resolved completely following treatment with vitamin B12. Physicians should be alert to the necessity for vitamin B12 supplementation for strict vegetarians, who eat no meat, fish, eggs, or dairy products.
Beilin, L. J., et al. (1987). "Vegetarian diet and blood pressure." Nephron 47 Suppl 1: 37-41.
There is now convincing evidence from epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials that adoption of an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet leads to blood pressure reduction in both normotensive and hypertensive subjects. This effect appears to be independent of both dietary sodium and weight loss but additive to effects of weight reduction. Long-term adherence to a vegetarian diet is associated with less of a rise of blood pressure with age and a decreased prevalence of hypertension. The nutrients responsible for these effects have not been clearly identified and the mechanisms involved are unknown. Resolution of these questions is needed to enable more widespread adoption of dietary changes which may reduce the prevalence of hypertension, reduce antihypertensive drug dependence and by effects on blood pressure and blood lipids ameliorate the natural history of hypertensive cardiovascular disease.
Beilin, L. J. and B. M. Margetts (1987). "Vegetarian diet and blood pressure." Bibl Cardiol(41): 85-105.
Contaldo, F. and A. Coltorti (1987). "Yoga or fiber? Thermodynamics in the vegetarian." JAMA 257(10): 1330.
Ernst, E., et al. (1987). "Vegetarian diet in mild hypertension." Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 294(6565): 180.
Hilton, J. W. (1987). "Vegetarian dog foods." Can Vet J 28(8): 535-539.
Holmes, S. (1987). "Infant feeding. The young vegetarian." Nurs Times 83(3): 51-55.
Ichihara, H. (1987). "[Nurses in clinical setting: encounters with vegetarian patients]." Kango 39(12): 64-70.
Shultz, T. D. and J. E. Leklem (1987). "Vitamin B-6 status and bioavailability in vegetarian women." Am J Clin Nutr 46(4): 647-651.
It has been hypothesized that the vitamin B-6 status of vegetarians and nonvegetarians may differ in relation to bioavailability of vitamin B-6. Fasting blood samples and 24-h urine collections were obtained from 13 Seventh-day Adventist (SDA) vegetarian and 16 non-SDA nonvegetarian women aged 50-83 y. The two groups were further subdivided into vitamin users and nonusers. Dietary intake was estimated from a 3-d diet record. Plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) was measured by an enzymatic method. Vitamin B-6 intakes were similar and provided 85% of the RDA for both groups. The vegetarians consumed significantly more crude fiber than the nonvegetarians. No significant differences were found between the two groups for plasma PLP, urinary 4-pyridoxic acid, and urinary vitamin B-6 among vitamin nonusers or for age categories within groups. There appeared to be no adverse effect of fiber on the availability or metabolism of vitamin B-6 between these free-living groups.
Specker, B. L., et al. (1987). "Effect of vegetarian diet on serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations during lactation." Obstet Gynecol 70(6): 870-874.
The effect of maternal diet on serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D has not been determined in human lactation. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, other calcitropic hormones, osteocalcin, and minerals were examined in lactating and nonlactating women consuming a vegetarian or nonvegetarian diet. The vegetarian diet was a macrobiotic diet consisting primarily of whole cereal grains and vegetables; dairy products, eggs, and meats were generally avoided. We tested the thesis that the effect of lactation on serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D is more pronounced in women on vegetarian diets than in those on nonvegetarian diets. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations were significantly higher in lactating women compared with nonlactating women and in vegetarian compared with nonvegetarian women. Among vegetarian women, mean serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations were 37% higher in the lactating group. For all subjects, serum parathyroid hormone was elevated during lactation compared with nonlactation. Thus, a vegetarian diet appears to be associated with increased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D during lactation.
Specker, B. L., et al. (1987). "Differences in fatty acid composition of human milk in vegetarian and nonvegetarian women: long-term effect of diet." J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 6(5): 764-768.
The purpose of the current study was to determine whether there were differences in the fatty acid composition of milk from vegetarian mothers compared to nonvegetarian mothers and whether fatty acid composition was related to length of time on a vegetarian diet. Median time on a vegetarian diet was 81 months (range 36-132 months). Milk fat and fatty acids produced de novo in the mammary gland did not differ between diet groups. Milk from vegetarian women (n = 12) contained higher percentages of the precursors of arachidonic acid compared to nonvegetarian women (n = 7). Although there was no difference between diet group in the amount of arachidonic acid present (percent of total), a lower percentage was observed in women the longer they were on a vegetarian diet (r = -0.724, p = 0.008), with a corresponding higher percentage of the sum of precursors of arachidonic acid (r = 0.563, p = 0.056). The percentage of docosahexenoic acid was similar in the milk of vegetarian women compared to nonvegetarian women. The length of time on a vegetarian diet had no effect on these two fatty acids. In summary, differences in fatty acid content were apparent between the two dietary groups and changes with time on a vegetarian diet suggest that not only does current maternal diet affect fatty acid milk composition, but long-term dietary habits may as well.
Warnock, F. and I. Rouse (1987). "Vegetarian diet. Good for the heart, but still a matter of balance." Aust Fam Physician 16(10): 1550-1551, 1554-1555.
Wirths, W., et al. (1987). "[Effect of an ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet on nutrition and blood status. I. Method, food consumption, administration of nutrients and anthropometry]." Z Ernahrungswiss 26(4): 230-249.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the physiological assessment of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet, in comparison to a usual mixed diet and to analyse the effect of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on nutritional status and blood parameters. Following an initial study, 34 resp. 33 subjects, three of them male took part in two investigation periods each lasting three weeks. During the first period (N) the subjects ingested the normal mixed diet, while in the second period (L) they were fed a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet. The female subjects were aged 52.6 +/- 14.3 years, the male subjects 47.7 +/- 12.7 years. In both periods food supply ensued from the central kitchen of a nunnery. While preparing the meals, the food intake and the amount of nutrients was assessed with precise weighing methods. Also, the individual food consumption of the total subjects was estimated using food records. The nutritional physiological evaluation was based on the daily consumption of energy and nutrients to assess the nutrient supply, by means of the recommended dietary allowances of the German Nutrition Society. At the beginning of period N and both at the beginning and the end of period L, blood tests of the following parameters were performed: serum glucose, uric acid, and potassium, total protein, total cholesterol, HDL-, LDL-, VLDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, serum ferritin, serum iron, iron binding capacity, hemoglobin, s-GOT, s-GPT, thiamine, riboflavine, ascorbic acid. Measurements of body weight and height, body composition, skinfold thickness, circumferences, body surface, relative weight, blood pressure and sitting pulse rate completed the investigations. Furthermore, meal frequency and the daily individual energy requirement of the subjects were assessed by means of a diary of energy expenditure. On average, the daily energy consumption of women was 2020 +/- 611.3 kcal in period N, and 1970 +/- 592.4 kcal in period L. Consequently, there was a covering of energy requirements of 103% in period N and 99% in period L. Sources of energy consisted of 14% protein, 36.4% fat and 49.6% carbohydrates in period L, 13.6% protein, 39.6% fat, 44.7% carbohydrates and 2.1% alcohol in period N.
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