Adlercreutz, H., et al. (1986). "Urinary estrogen profile determination in young Finnish vegetarian and omnivorous women." J Steroid Biochem 24(1): 289-296.
For a long time it has been postulated that diet may influence estrogen metabolism and in this way affect breast cancer risk. In order to investigate possible effects of variations of dietary fiber intake on estrogen metabolism, the urinary estrogen profile (13 estrogens), including the catecholestrogens, was determined in one 72-h summer and one winter sample collected in the midfollicular phase of the menstrual cycle by 11 lactovegetarian and 12 omnivorous young Finnish women. Urinary estrogens were purified by ion-exchange chromatography and the quantitative determination was carried out by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Detailed records of the subjects' diet during one 5-day period in summer and one in winter were obtained and dietary fiber intake calculated. The mean difference with regard to intake of total fiber in the two dietary groups was 3 g/day in the summer (not significant) and 5 g/day in the winter (P less than 0.05), the mean (geometric) consumption being 23 and 19 g/day by the vegetarian and omnivorous women, respectively. Within the groups we found seasonal variation in fiber intake only for the omnivorous women. During winter, compared to summer, the omnivorous women consumed significantly less grain (P less than 0.001), vegetable (P less than 0.02) and total fiber (P less than 0.02). The excretion of 13 estrogens was remarkably constant in the omnivoric group but a significant seasonal variation of total and individual catecholestrogens and of estrone was observed in the vegetarians (P less than 0.05-0.005). The quantitatively most important estrogen was 2-hydroxyestrone, followed by estrone, estriol, 2-hydroxyestradiol, 4-hydroxyestrone and estradiol, the three latter being excreted in similar amounts. Between the dietary groups there were no significant differences in excretion of total or individual urinary estrogens in any season or between the mean values for both seasons. However, numerous significant (P less than 0.05-0.01) negative correlations between dietary intake of total or grain fiber/kg body weight and the excretion of individual estrogens were found. These correlations disappeared if the fiber intake was not related to body weight. We conclude that dietary fiber intake significantly affects estrogen metabolism by reducing estrogen excretion in urine and that grain fiber seems to be most important in that respect. One of the mechanisms involved is a partial interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of the estrogens, due to alterations of the intestinal metabolism and reabsorption of these steroids, caused by the fiber.
Beilin, L. J. (1986). "Vegetarian approach to hypertension." Can J Physiol Pharmacol 64(6): 852-855.
Cross-sectional epidemiological studies suggest that ovolactovegetarians have lower blood pressure and less of a rise in blood pressure with age than meat eaters. Controlled dietary intervention trials in normotensive and untreated mild hypertensive have provided more direct evidence for a direct dietary effect on blood pressure. Studies designed to identify the nutrients involved suggest that neither polyunsaturated fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, potassium, magnesium, sodium, or total protein intake are independently responsible. The pathophysiological mechanisms involved are also unclear. In view of the complex changes involved in changing to a vegetarian diet, research in this area needs to pay careful attention to experimental design. This is an area of research that has important implications for the control of hypertensive cardiovascular disease in the community by means other than drugs.
Bhattacharya, R. D. (1986). "Circadian rhythm of blood and urinary copper in presumably healthy subjects of vegetarian food habit." Arch Environ Health 41(5): 302-305.
Circadian rhythm of blood and urinary copper has been studied in presumably healthy subjects of a particular ethnic group in India who are vegetarians. A definite 24-hr variation has been observed for both blood and urinary copper. The peak for blood copper was 1,500 hr and the lowest value was 0600 hr, with values of 0.185 mg/100 ml and 0.106 mg/100 ml respectively. The urinary peak and trough occurred at 0600 and 0300 hr, respectively. Remarkably higher 24-hr copper excretion values were noted (64.49 micrograms/day) with a range of 15-100 micrograms/day. The blood level of copper (0.134 mg/100 ml) remained within the range reported. One subject out of 25 deviated from the group with respect to circadian phasing and amplitude to urinary copper excretion.
Bindra, G. S. and R. S. Gibson (1986). "Iron status of predominantly lacto-ovo vegetarian East Indian immigrants to Canada: a model approach." Am J Clin Nutr 44(5): 643-652.
Iron status of East Indian predominantly lacto-ovo vegetarian immigrants (59 males, mean age 37.7 +/- 10.5 yr; 55 females, mean age 33.3 +/- 7.4 yr) was assessed using dietary and biochemical-iron indices, including a Tri-index (TI) model. Iron deficiency was higher among females than males: 33% vs 5%, respectively, via the TI model (serum ferritin, serum-transferrin saturation, and mean corpuscular-hemoglobin concentration) and 18-42% vs 2-22%, respectively, via individual biochemical-iron indices. Rates of anemia calculated via the TI model in combination with low hemoglobin and mixed-distribution analysis (MDA) were similar and higher for the females (TI + Hb = 16%; MDA = 12%) than for the males (TI + Hb = 5%; MDA = 3%). High prevalence among females was attributed to low available iron intakes, concomitant with high intakes of dietary fiber, phytate, and tannins. We recommend the TI-model approach to estimate relative prevalence of iron deficiency in small surveys.
Bindra, G. S. and R. S. Gibson (1986). "Mineral intakes of predominantly lacto-ovo vegetarian East Indian adults." Biol Trace Elem Res 10(3): 223-234.
Daily energy, protein, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and dietary fiber intakes of East Indian Punjabi immigrants consuming predominantly lacto-ovo vegetarian diets [59 males (M), mean age 37.7+/-10.5 yr. and 53 females (F), mean age 33.3+/-7.4 yr] were assessed by calculation from 3-d weighted dietary records, using food composition values and by chemical analysis of 30 1-d diet composites. Mean daily calculated intakes wer: energy, M=2374+/-713 and F=1708+/-552 kcal; protein, M=95.8+/-35.1 and F=68.0+/-28.9g; Ca, M=990+/-468 and F=837+/-393 mg; M=2034+/-778 and F=1489+/-551 mg; Zn, M=12.2+/-4.9 and F=8.8+/-3.9 mg; Cu, M=2.4+/-0.9 and F=1.7+/-0.6 mg; and Mn, M=7.7+/-3.3 and F=5.7+/-2.4 mg. The mean daily Ca intakes for M and F were 124 and 105%, respectively, of the Canadian Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI). In contrast, average P intakes were much higher, 254 and 213% of the RNI for M and F, respectively, so that the mean Ca:P ratios were 1:2.0 for M and 1:1.8 for F. Forty-eight percent of the F compared to 19% of the M had Zn intakes below the current RNI, whereas 28% of the M and 77% of the F received Cu intakes below the suggested US safe and adequate range. Mean daily Mn intakes were higher than those for subjects consuming omniverous North American diets and none of the subjects had Mn intakes below the US safe and adequate range.
Elmau, G. H. (1986). "Vegetarian diets--good or bad?" S Afr Med J 70(13): 848.
Fentiman, I. S., et al. (1986). "Diurnal variations in prolactin and growth hormone levels in normal premenopausal vegetarian and omnivorous women." Nutr Cancer 8(4): 239-245.
Diurnal levels of plasma prolactin and growth hormone were measured in 47 normal premenopausal women, 26 of whom were established vegetarians and 21 of whom were omnivorous controls. There were no differences between the median prolactin levels of the two groups during a 24-hour period of investigation. When the groups were further subdivided into ovolactovegetarians and vegans, still no differences were found in prolactin secretion. In contrast, the vegetarian women exhibited elevation of growth hormone levels during the period of study, which was particularly marked at midnight and 10 A.M.
Fisher, M., et al. (1986). "The effect of vegetarian diets on plasma lipid and platelet levels." Arch Intern Med 146(6): 1193-1197.
Vegetarians have an apparent diminished risk for the development of ischemic coronary heart disease. This may be secondary to dietary effects of plasma lipids and lipoproteins, but platelets, which may also play a role, have also been observed to have aberrant functions in vegetarians. We measured plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels, platelet function, platelet fatty acid levels, and platelet active prostaglandins in ten strict vegetarians (vegans), 15 lactovegetarians, and 25 age- and sex-matched omnivorous controls. The most striking observations were a highly significant rise in platelet linoleic acid concentration and a decline in platelet arachidonic acid concentration in both vegetarian subgroups as compared with omnivorous controls. Serum thromboxane and prostacyclin levels as well as results of platelet aggregation studies did not differ among the groups tested. Cholesterol levels were significantly lower in both vegetarian groups as compared with controls, but plasma high- and low-density lipoprotein levels were lower only in the vegan subgroup as compared with omnivores. If diet produces these changes in platelet fatty acid and plasma lipid levels it may contribute to the decreased risk of coronary heart disease and possibly atherosclerosis in vegetarians.
Gambon, R. C., et al. (1986). "Megaloblastic anaemia in one of monozygous twins breast fed by their vegetarian mother." Eur J Pediatr 145(6): 570-571.
Megaloblastic anaemia in infancy is uncommon in western countries. We describe a case of an exclusively breast-fed monozygous twin with severe vitamin B12 deficiency with haematologic and neurologic abnormalities. Treatment with vitamin B12 resulted in a rapid haematological and clinical improvement.
Hanne, N., et al. (1986). "Physical fitness, anthropometric and metabolic parameters in vegetarian athletes." J Sports Med Phys Fitness 26(2): 180-185.
Hill, P. B., et al. (1986). "Gonadotrophin release and meat consumption in vegetarian women." Am J Clin Nutr 43(1): 37-41.
Many factors including diet modify the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and menstrual periodicity. We have determined the effect of a daily meat or a soybean supplement in rural vegetarian Black women on the length of the menstrual cycle and the episodic and luteinizing releasing hormone stimulated release of luteinizing hormone. The daily meat but not soybean supplement increased the length of the menstrual cycle (p less than or equal to 0.01), increased the release of LH (p less than or equal to 0.01), and decreased the stimulated release of LH in the luteal phase (p less than or equal to 0.01). These changes are opposite to those reported previously in the Caucasian women fed a meatless diet. Thus addition of meat in the diet modifies the episodic release of gonadotrophins and follicular maturation. The importance of a carbohydrate diet preferentially maintaining CNS-rhythmicity is suggested.
Maloney, S., et al. (1986). "Work function analysis of vegetarian entree production." J Am Diet Assoc 86(2): 237-241.
Data on labor time for food production can be used as an effective management tool. It is essential for foodservice managers to know how labor time is being used (1). A continuous time study was conducted to determine total labor time for the production of eight vegetarian entrees in a hospital foodservice system. Two work areas were observed: the ingredient assembly area and the cooks' production area. Times were recorded by work function to identify how labor time was distributed. Results showed (a) observed frequency for each work function, (b) time expended in seconds per portion for each work function, (c) percentage distribution of labor time by work function, (d) total time for each employee involved in entree production, and (e) percentage of total time in which each employee was involved in the production of each entree. Total labor time varied by type of entree, ranging from 39.97 to 19.33 seconds per portion. Entrees with the highest labor time required the largest amount of hand labor. A one-way analysis of variance indicated significant differences in mean labor time among the eight vegetarian entrees for direct labor time (p = .0009), and total labor time (p = .0018). No significant differences were found among entrees for indirect labor or delay time.
Margetts, B. M., et al. (1986). "Vegetarian diet in mild hypertension: a randomised controlled trial." Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 293(6560): 1468-1471.
In a randomised crossover trial 58 subjects aged 30-64 with mild untreated hypertension were allocated either to a control group eating a typical omnivorous diet or to one of two groups eating an ovolactovegetarian diet for one of two six week periods. A fall in systolic blood pressure of the order of 5 mm Hg occurred during the vegetarian diet periods, with a corresponding rise on resuming a meat diet. The main nutrient changes with the vegetarian diet included an increase in the ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fats and intake of fibre, calcium, and magnesium and a decrease in the intake of protein and vitamin B12. There were no consistent changes in urinary sodium or potassium excretion or body weight. In untreated subjects with mild hypertension, changing to a vegetarian diet may bring about a worthwhile fall in systolic blood pressure.
Pirke, K. M., et al. (1986). "Dieting influences the menstrual cycle: vegetarian versus nonvegetarian diet." Fertil Steril 46(6): 1083-1088.
Eighteen healthy, normal-weight women aged 19 to 27 years who had regular ovulatory menstrual cycles volunteered for the study. Blood was drawn on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays throughout the control cycle and during a 6-week diet period that began with commencement of a new cycle. Nine women followed a vegetarian diet and nine a nonvegetarian diet. Both groups lost an average of 1 kg body weight/week. Seven of nine women in the vegetarian group became anovulatory. During the vegetarian diet the average luteinizing hormone (LH) values were significantly decreased during the midcycle and the luteal phase. Estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) values were significantly lower during the luteal phase. In contrast, the nonvegetarian group did not show significant reduction of LH, E2, and P values during any part of the menstrual cycle. Seven of nine women in the nonvegetarian diet group maintained ovulatory cycles with no changes in cycle length or in the length of the follicular phase. In one woman who became anovulatory, E2 values did not increase during the follicular phase.
Rouse, I. L., et al. (1986). "Nutrient intake, blood pressure, serum and urinary prostaglandins and serum thromboxane B2 in a controlled trial with a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet." J Hypertens 4(2): 241-250.
Fifty-nine healthy omnivores volunteered for a randomized crossover trial with a lacto-ovo-vegetarian (L-O-V) diet. Twenty-one 1-day diet records were kept throughout the project as a means of assessing food and nutrient intakes, and samples of serum and urine were assayed to evaluate change in prostanoid metabolism. While on the L-O-V diet subjects ate more vegetable protein, wholegrain cereals, polyunsaturated oils, fruits and vegetables, and avoided eating meat, fish or poultry. The L-O-V diet contained significantly more polyunsaturated fatty acids, fibre, vitamin C, vitamin E, magnesium, calcium and potassium, and less total protein, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and vitamin B12 than the control omnivore diet. Changes in nutrient intakes were subjected to principal components analysis to identify dimensions of change in nutrient intakes. Three Factors accounted for 83% of the total variation in dietary intake. Blood pressure changes were significantly and negatively (F = 17.4, P less than 0.001 for systolic; F = 6.09, P = 0.02 for diastolic pressure) related to individual scores for only one Factor--that representing an increase in intake of polyunsaturated fat, fibre, vitamin C, vitamin E, calcium and magnesium, and a fall in intake of protein and vitamin B12. Blood pressure changes were unrelated to change in body weight or sodium intake. Serum and urinary prostanoids were not affected by eating the L-O-V diet.
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