Agarwal, D. K., et al. (1984). "Determination of protein requirements on vegetarian diet in healthy female volunteers." Indian J Med Res 79: 60-67.
Etzioni, A., et al. (1984). "Systemic carnitine deficiency exacerbated by a strict vegetarian diet." Arch Dis Child 59(2): 177-179.
A 12-year old boy suffered episodes of vomiting, lethargy, and hypoglycaemia from the age of 1 year. Adhering to a vegetarian diet caused an increase in frequency and severity of the attacks. It was found that he was suffering from systemic carnitine deficiency that responded promptly to treatment with L-carnitine.
Jacobs, M. B. and W. Wilson (1984). "Iron deficiency anemia in a vegetarian runner." JAMA 252(4): 481-482.
Kramer, L. B., et al. (1984). "Mineral and trace element content of vegetarian diets." J Am Coll Nutr 3(1): 3-11.
Lacto-ovo, lacto, and vegan vegetarian diets were analyzed for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, iron, and nitrogen at four calorie intake levels ranging from 1,700 to 2,800 kcal/day. Diets containing dairy products had a high calcium and phosphorus content, ranging from 1,279 to 1,755 mg calcium and 1,378 to 2,160 mg phosphorus for the four calorie levels, respectively, and vegan diets contained less calcium, ranging from 612 to 810 mg. The magnesium content of all three types of vegetarian diets was adequate or high, ranging from 366 to 560 mg/day. The zinc content was lower than that of the RDA (15 mg/day), and was particularly low at the 1,700 calorie intake levels of all diets. The iron content of these diets varied widely and ranged from 12.7 to 22.7 mg. This study has shown that vegetarian diets planned and presented at the higher calorie intake levels contain adequate amounts of minerals and trace elements, whereas this is not the case at the 1,700 calorie intake level. This observation is of importance as the mineral and trace element content of relatively low calorie vegetarian diets would not supply sufficient amounts of these nutrients. In addition, the bioavailability of minerals and trace elements from these diets remains to be determined.
Labay y Matias, M. V., et al. (1984). "[Strict vegetarian diet, malnutrition, immunodeficiency and infection]." An Esp Pediatr 20(1): 69-71.
Masarei, J. R., et al. (1984). "Effects of a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet on serum concentrations of cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, HDL2-C, HDL3-C, apoprotein-B, and Lp(a)." Am J Clin Nutr 40(3): 468-478.
The effect of intervention with a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet on serum concentrations of cholesterol, triglyceride, total high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), HDL2-C, HDL3-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apoprotein-B, apoprotein-HDL, and Lp(a) was studied in 19 men and 17 women. Most weekday meals were obtained from a single source and dietary records were completed to assess the changes in nutrient intakes. Blood was collected in the 6th wk of each dietary period. Because of strong correlations between many of the changes in nutrient intakes, principal component (factor) analysis was used followed by stepwise multiple regression analysis to identify associations between changes in diet and changes in lipid, lipoprotein or apoprotein levels. Three principal components accounted for 92.0% of the variation in lipid levels: factor 1 represented an increase in saturated fat, total fat, monounsaturated fat, cholesterol, and energy intake: factor 2 represented an increase in fiber and polyunsaturated fat, and decrease in protein intake; factor 3 an increase in total carbohydrate, complex carbohydrate, and energy intake. Where a change in a variable was significantly associated with change in diet, one factor appeared primarily responsible for the change; total cholesterol (factor 2, p = 0.034); triglyceride (factor 3, p = 0.005); apo-HDL (factor 1, p = 0.014); HDL2-C (factor 2, p = 0.023), HDL3-C (factor 3, p = 0.015). A borderline significant association was seen for total HDL-C (factor 2, p = 0.055).
Masarei, J. R., et al. (1984). "Vegetarian diets, lipids and cardiovascular risk." Aust N Z J Med 14(4): 400-404.
Vegetarian diets produce moderate but appreciable changes in serum lipid levels. A six-week intervention study in which other aspects of life-style were kept constant showed that levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol fell 0.22, 0.19 and 0.07 mmol/l, respectively, while triglyceride levels increased non-significantly 0.12 mmol/l. The ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol did not change. A comparison of groups of habitual vegetarians and omnivores matched for other aspects of lifestyle showed rather larger differences in atherogenic lipid levels: 0.71 and 0.67 mmol/l for total- and LDL-cholesterol; the difference in HDL-C levels was 0.04 mmol/l; triglyceride was 0.19 mmol/l greater in vegetarians. 92% of the variation in intakes of major nutrients was accounted for by three derived factors; changes in levels of most of the lipids were associated in each case with one of the factors. The resultant falls in the levels of total- and LDL-cholesterol in people adopting a vegetarian diet probably contribute to a reduction in cardiovascular risk.
Matthews, J. H. and J. K. Wood (1984). "Megaloblastic anaemia in vegetarian Asians." Clin Lab Haematol 6(1): 1-7.
Of 27 Asians with a megaloblastic bone marrow, 22 (81%) had nutritional deficiency of vitamin B12 (NMA), while five (19%) had true pernicious anaemia (PA). All the patients were Hindu vegetarians except for a single Muslim who had PA. Dietary intakes of calories, protein, iron, vitamin B12 and folate were below the recommended level in both groups. The PA group had lower levels of serum B12 and higher levels of serum folate than the NMA group. Despite low levels of red cell folate (RCF) in the NMA patients, the abnormality in deoxyuridine (dU) suppression was always corrected by vitamin B12. The dU suppressed value showed a significant inverse relationship to the RCF level. Nutritional deficiency of vitamin B12 is the most common cause of megaloblastic anaemia in Hindu vegetarians but the incidence of true PA is higher than previously thought and may approximate to that of the white population.
Rouse, I. L. and L. J. Beilin (1984). "Vegetarian diet and blood pressure." J Hypertens 2(3): 231-240.
Rouse, I. L., et al. (1984). "Vegetarian diet, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk." Aust N Z J Med 14(4): 439-443.
This paper reviews the association between a vegetarian diet and a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease investigated in a series of epidemiological and experimental studies. Ninety-eight Seventh-day Adventist "vegetarians" were similar to 113 Mormon omnivores for strength of religious affiliation, consumption of alcohol, tea and coffee and use of tobacco, but were significantly less obese and had significantly lower blood pressures adjusted for age, height and weight. A random sample of forty-seven Adventist vegetarians had significantly lower home blood pressures, serum cholesterol levels and blood pressure responses to a cold-pressor test than Mormon omnivores carefully matched for age, sex and Quetelet's index. In a controlled dietary intervention study mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures and serum cholesterol fell significantly during feeding with a vegetarian diet--an effect unrelated to changes in other lifestyle factors. Dietary analysis indicated that a vegetarian diet provided more polyunsaturated fat, fibre, vitamin C, vitamin E, magnesium, calcium and potassium and significantly less total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol than an omnivore diet. There was no evidence for a difference between vegetarians and omnivores in levels of catecholamines, plasma renin activity, angiotensin II, cortisol or serum and urinary prostanoids.
Rudy, C. A. (1984). "Vegetarian diets for children." Pediatr Nurs 10(5): 329-333.
Slavin, J., et al. (1984). "Amenorrhoea in vegetarian athletes." Lancet 1(8392): 1474-1475.
Truesdell, D. D., et al. (1984). "Nutrients in vegetarian foods." J Am Diet Assoc 84(1): 28-35.
Persons who use tables of food composition have often found that foods that vegetarians commonly eat are not included. To help remedy this situation, a table is presented which includes the 49 foods on the vegetarian Exchange Lists and 18 additional nonmeat foods. Nutrient contents of household measures of these foods are given for water, protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, zinc, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, and folacin. Nutrient amounts were derived from USDA sources and from other published research when available. Nutrient amounts from foods assumed to be identical to those in the table were placed in parentheses. When nutrient amounts were not available, they were estimated from similar foods and placed in brackets. When values found for a single nutrient in a food varied by 20% or more, the total range was shown. When a dash was found in a literature reference and the amount of the nutrient was known to be insignificant, a zero was presented in the table. Thus, there are no gaps in the table. Until accurate laboratory-derived data are available for the nutrients in vegetarian foods, this table, used with appropriate judgment, should be useful for estimating the nutrient intakes of persons who eat vegetarian foods.
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