(1983). "Estrogen excretion and plasma levels in vegetarian and omnivorous women." N Engl J Med 308(22): 1360.
(1983). "Estrogen excretion patterns and plasma levels in vegetarian and omnivorous women." Nutr Rev 41(6): 180-183.
Bhatia, B. D., et al. (1983). "Determination of protein requirements in healthy male volunteers on vegetarian diet." Indian J Med Res 77: 658-667.
Chaudhary, S. K. (1983). "Environmental factors: Extensive use of copper utensils and vegetarian diet in the causation of Indian childhood cirrhosis." Indian Pediatr 20(7): 529-531.
Chetty, N. and B. A. Bradlow (1983). "The effects of a vegetarian diet on platelet function and fatty acids." Thromb Res 30(6): 619-624.
Nine healthy subjects taking an average mixed "Western" diet were placed on a vegetarian diet poor in arachidonic acid for four weeks. All animal and marine foods except for cows milk and milk products were excluded. Platelet aggregation responses to arachidonic acid and epinephrine increased slightly whereas responses to ADP and collagen were unchanged. Platelet thromboxane production, platelet counts, serum LDL cholesterol and triglycerides did not change but total and HDL serum cholesterol levels fell significantly. There was a significant rise in platelet arachidonic acid content but other platelet fatty acids did not change significantly. A reduction in dietary arachidonic acid did not inhibit platelet aggregation or thromboxane production.
Curtis, J. A., et al. (1983). "Nutritional rickets in vegetarian children." Can Med Assoc J 128(2): 150-152.
Dwyer, J. (1983). "Health implications of vegetarian diets." Compr Ther 9(4): 23-28.
Dwyer, J. T., et al. (1983). "Growth in "new" vegetarian preschool children using the Jenss-Bayley curve fitting technique." Am J Clin Nutr 37(5): 815-827.
Length and weight measurements obtained on 142 vegetarian and 229 nonvegetarian school children from a normative population were fitted to growth curves using the asymptotic nonlinear regression equation of Jenss and Bayley. All of the children were Caucasian and age ranged from a few weeks to 6 yr. The growth curves obtained for vegetarian children were from 0.5 to 1.0 kg and 1 to 2 cm lower, depending on age, sex, and diet, than were curves for reference populations of nonvegetarian children. Length was affected more than weight. Macrobiotic vegetarian children's curves were more depressed than those of the other vegetarian children, indicating that there was a good deal of heterogeneity in growth within vegetarians which was associated with dietary group characteristics. Measurements of females were more consistently affected than males, and their diets were also more far reaching with respect to animal food avoidances. The analysis of food records available provided evidence that energy intakes of the vegetarians were below recommended levels, whereas protein intakes did not appear to be limiting.
Kinlen, L. J., et al. (1983). "A proportionate study of cancer mortality among members of a vegetarian society." Br J Cancer 48(3): 355-361.
A proportionate study was carried out of the causes of death of the 759 Vegetarian Society members whose deaths were recorded in Society records and whose death certificates could be traced. Compared to the general population, a lower proportion of deaths from respiratory diseases and from lung cancer was noted particularly in long-standing members, consistent with the evidence that vegetarians smoke less than the average. The proportion of deaths from colorectal cancer was slightly lower than in the general population but there was no reduction in the proportions of deaths from other diseases that have been linked with meat or fat consumption, such as cardiovascular diseases and breast cancer. The proportions of deaths from stomach cancer and from accidents and violence were greater than expected. The significance of the findings is discussed and also the possible limitations of the proportionate method of analysis in relation to studies of vegetarians.
Liebman, M. and T. L. Bazzarre (1983). "Plasma lipids of vegetarian and nonvegetarian males: effects of egg consumption." Am J Clin Nutr 38(4): 612-619.
Mean fasting plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total triglycerides were 6, 7, and 19% lower (NS) in 36 vegetarian males compared to 18 nonvegetarian males of similar age, weight, height, alcohol consumption, and physical activity levels. None of the participants smoked. Although the vegetarian subjects were characterized by widely differing egg consumption levels, no relationships were observed between dietary or egg cholesterol intakes and plasma lipid levels. Total fat intake, however, appeared to exert an important influence upon plasma lipid levels within the vegetarian group. Total mean cholesterol and triglyceride levels were 11 and 21% lower and mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were 14% higher in low-fat vegetarians (23 to 33% kcal from fat) compared to high-fat vegetarians (35 to 48% kcal from fat). The similarity in lipid profiles between vegetarians and nonvegetarians may be partially explained by the relatively high fat intake (36.6%, mean) in the vegetarian subpopulation, and by the careful matching of vegetarians to nonvegetarians.
Lithell, H., et al. (1983). "A fasting and vegetarian diet treatment trial on chronic inflammatory disorders." Acta Derm Venereol 63(5): 397-403.
Twenty patients with arthritis and various skin diseases were studied on a metabolic ward during a 2-week period of modified fast followed by a 3-week period of vegetarian diet. During fasting, arthralgia was less intense in many subjects. In some types of skin diseases (pustulosis palmaris et plantaris and atopic eczema) an improvement could be demonstrated during the fast. During the vegan diet, both signs and symptoms returned in most patients, with the exception of some patients with psoriasis who experienced an improvement. The concentrations of lactoferrin in serum reflect the turnover and activity of neutrophil leukocytes. When this protein was initially increased it fell to normal values in most cases. The improvement or impairment of signs and symptoms was related to the lactoferrin levels in serum.
Lithell, H., et al. (1983). "Changes in metabolism during a fasting period and a subsequent vegetarian diet with particular reference to glucose metabolism." Ups J Med Sci 88(2): 109-119.
During an investigation on the effect of fasting and a vegetarian diet on the symptoms and signs in chronic cutaneous and arthritic diseases studies were made of glucose metabolism, liver function and the plasma concentration and urine excretion of some minerals. The study was performed on 27 patients who stayed as in-patients on a metabolic ward for five weeks. After the fasting period the blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations were lower (p less than 0.01) than before the fast. At the end of the period on the vegetarian (vegan) diet (three weeks) the insulin/glucose ratio was lower than at the start of the fast. Serum enzyme concentrations reflecting liver function increased during the fast, but normalized during the vegan diet. The intake of vitamin B12 and of selenium due to the vegan diets was very low, which may give reason for some concern during long-term use of this type of vegetarian diet.
Marsh, A. G., et al. (1983). "Bone mineral mass in adult lacto-ovo-vegetarian and omnivorous males." Am J Clin Nutr 37(3): 453-456.
Past studies indicate postmenopausal women who eat meat may experience greater bone mineral loss than lacto-ovo-vegetarian women. The present study extends those findings by comparing bone mineral in adult lacto-ovo-vegetarian and omnivorous males. Bone mineral mass was determined by direct photon absorptiometry in 320 lacto-ovo-vegetarian and 320 omnivorous males 20 to 79 yr old. Lacto-ovo-vegetarians were Seventh-day Adventists committed to their diet for at least 20 yr. Measurements were made at a cortical site along the radius. No statistical differences were identified between bone mineral mass in the lacto-ovo-vegetarian and omnivorous males in any decade examined. When contrasted against significant differences between bone mineral mass in postmenopausal omnivores and lacto-ovo-vegetarians, the data presented here may be interpreted as indicating that some factor associated with meat consumption is increasing bone mineral losses in postmenopausal females while having no observable effect in males.
Miller, M. R. (1983). "The food factor and the scientific nurse: vegetarian eating." Aust Nurses J 12(9): 30-31.
Olhagen, B. (1983). "[Fasting and vegetarian diet in rheumatoid arthritis--does new experience explain short-time remission?]." Lakartidningen 80(10): 972-974.
Rouse, I. L., et al. (1983). "Blood-pressure-lowering effect of a vegetarian diet: controlled trial in normotensive subjects." Lancet 1(8314-5): 5-10.
59 healthy, omnivorous subjects aged 25-63 years were randomly allocated to a control group, which ate an omnivorous diet for 14 weeks, or to one of two experimental groups, whose members ate an omnivorous diet for the first 2 weeks and a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet for one of two 6-week experimental periods. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures did not change in the control group but fell significantly in both experimental groups during the vegetarian diet and rose significantly in the experimental group which reverted to the omnivorous diet. Adjustment of the blood-pressure changes for age, obesity, heart rate, weight change, and blood pressure before dietary change indicated a diet-related fall of some 5-6 mm Hg systolic and 2-3 mm Hg diastolic. Although the nutrient(s) causing these blood-pressure changes are unknown, the effects were apparently not mediated by changes in sodium or potassium intake.
Rouse, I. L., et al. (1983). "Vegetarian diet and blood pressure." Lancet 2(8352): 742-743.
Shultz, T. D. and J. E. Leklem (1983). "Nutrient intake and hormonal status of premenopausal vegetarian Seventh-day Adventists and premenopausal nonvegetarians." Nutr Cancer 4(4): 247-259.
The relationship between dietary nutrients and plasma estrone, estradiol-17 beta, estriol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and prolactin levels was investigated in 14 premenopausal Seventh-day Adventist vegetarian (SV) women and 9 premenopausal non-Seventh-day Adventist nonvegetarian (NV) women. The SV subjects consumed less fat, especially saturated fat, and used significantly less fried food than the NV subjects. Plasma levels of estrone and estradiol-17 beta in the SV subjects were significantly lower than in the NV subjects. SV estradiol-17 beta and estriol levels were positively correlated with linoleic acid and protein intake, while NV prolactin levels were significantly correlated with intakes of oleic and linoleic acids and total fat. The data suggest that specific dietary nutrients were related to the hormonal milieu of these SV and NV subjects.
Siguel, E. N. (1983). "Cancerostatic effect of vegetarian diets." Nutr Cancer 4(4): 285-291.
A cancerostatic effect of vegetarian diets is proposed on the basis of a selective alteration of the metabolic pathways of fatty acids in neoplastic cells. Most vegetables lack the enzyme 6-desaturase (6D), which converts linoleic to arachidonic acid. Human cells have 6D, and therefore humans do not need to eat the higher polyunsaturated fatty acids found in animal tissues. Many neoplastic cells have lost the activity of 6D. A vegetarian diet would deprive neoplastic cells of higher-chain fatty acids and inhibit the activity of 6D. Without higher-carbon fatty acids, neoplastic cell membranes would have altered fluidity and thus altered transport properties, receptor activity, sensitivity to external molecules, ability to reproduce, resistance to external agents (drugs, radiation, immune defenses, temperature), and overall survival. These alterations would make the cells easier prey for the self-defense of the body or for attack with therapeutic agents. Thus, a vegetarian diet would alter the tumor cell lipid membranes and decrease neoplastic cell survival.
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