Adlercreutz, H., et al. (1982). "Excretion of the lignans enterolactone and enterodiol and of equol in omnivorous and vegetarian postmenopausal women and in women with breast cancer." Lancet 2(8311): 1295-1299.
Dietary studies and assays of urinary lignans in postmenopausal women showed that lignan excretion is significantly lower in urine of women with breast cancer than in normal omnivorous and vegetarian women and confirmed that there is a significant correlation between fibre intake and lignan excretion. It is suggested that the precursors of the human lignans enterolactone and enterodiol formed by the intestinal microflora are to be found in fibre-rich foods such as grains, nuts, and legumes. Excretion of equol, which has antioestrogenic properties, was similar in all groups studied and did not correlate with fibre intake, but occasional high values were found in some subjects.
Dwyer, J. T., et al. (1982). "Nutritional status of vegetarian children." Am J Clin Nutr 35(2): 204-216.
Thirty-nine preschool children consuming different types of vegetarian diets were studied. Type and amount of carbohydrate, fat, protein, and amount of sodium and cholesterol provided by their diets were more like intakes suggested in the proposed Dietary Goals for the United States than to levels in usual diets of nonvegetarian children. Macrobiotic vegetarian children consumed less animal food than did other vegetarian children. The mean intake of vitamin D of macrobiotics was an eighth of the Recommended Dietary Allowance and mean serum alkaline phosphatase values were elevated. The mean intake of vitamin B12 levels were normal. Vegan macrobiotic children had the lowest intakes of vitamins B12 and D. Other vegetarians' mean intakes of these vitamins met the Recommended Dietary Allowance. Mean iron intakes of the vegetarians approximated the Recommended Dietary Allowance. Hematological indices were suggestive of mild iron deficiency anemia in a quarter of subjects. Serum cholesterol values were low for the group. Physical measurements were within normal limits and macrobiotic vegetarians were not smaller or leaner than other vegetarian children. The nutritional difficulties discovered could be corrected by careful planning of vegetarian children's diets while preserving the beneficial qualities of the diet in other respects.
Goldin, B. R., et al. (1982). "Estrogen excretion patterns and plasma levels in vegetarian and omnivorous women." N Engl J Med 307(25): 1542-1547.
We studied 10 vegetarian and 10 nonvegetarian premenopausal women on four occasions approximately four months apart. During each study period, the participants kept three-day dietary records, and estrogens were measured in plasma, urinary, and fecal samples. Vegetarians consumed less total fat than omnivores did (30 per cent of total calories, as compared with 40 per cent) and more dietary fiber (28 g per day, as compared with 12 g). There was a positive correlation between fecal weight and fecal excretion of estrogens in both groups (P less than 0.001), with vegetarians having higher fecal weight and increased fecal excretion of estrogens. Urinary excretion of estriol was lower in vegetarians (P less than 0.05), and their plasma levels of estrone and estradiol were negatively correlated with fecal excretion of estrogen (P = 0.005). Among the vegetarians the beta-glucuronidase activity of fecal bacteria was significantly reduced (P = 0.05). We conclude that vegetarian women have an increased fecal output, which leads to increased fecal excretion of estrogen and a decreased plasma concentration of estrogen.
Isenberg, D. A., et al. (1982). "Muscle strength and pre-osteomalacia in vegetarian Asian women." Lancet 1(8262): 55.
Knuiman, J. T. and C. E. West (1982). "The concentration of cholesterol in serum and in various serum lipoproteins in macrobiotic, vegetarian and non-vegetarian men and boys." Atherosclerosis 43(1): 71-82.
The concentrations of total and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and the ratio of HDL-cholesterol to total cholesterol have been examined in groups of non-vegetarian, semi-lactovegetarian, lactovegetarian and marcobiotic men aged 30-39 years and boys aged 6-11 years. In the men, the concentration of total cholesterol ranged from 3.8 mmol/l in the macrobiotics to 5.5 mmol/l in the non-vegetarians, while the concentration of HDL-cholesterol varied between 1.2 mmol/l and 1.4 mmol/l. The ratio of HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol varied from 0.23 in the non-vegetarian men to 0.31 in the macrobiotics and it was negatively related to the body mass index (ratio of weight to height2). In the boys the concentration of total cholesterol ranged from 3.4 mmol/l in the macrobiotics to 4.3 mmol/l in the semi-lactovegetarians, while the concentration of HDL-cholesterol varied between 1.2 mmol/l to 1.4 mmol/l. The ratio of HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol was similar in the four groups (0.33-0.35). The concentration of cholesterol in various lipoprotein fractions separated by ultracentrifugation was also estimated in subsamples of the populations. The variation between groups in the concentration of HDL-cholesterol appeared to be largely due to variations in the concentration of cholesterol in the HDL2 fraction (1.063 less than rho 20 less than 1.125).
Rouse, I. L., et al. (1982). "Vegetarian diet, lifestyle and blood pressure in two religious populations." Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 9(3): 327-330.
1. The association between vegetarianism and blood pressure was studied in relation to obesity, sex and aspects of lifestyle in 180 Seventh-day Adventists and 113 Mormons aged 25-44 y. 2. Volunteers completed a questionnaire, a 1-day diet record and submitted to standardized measurements of blood pressure, heart rate and body size. 3. Ninety-eight Adventist "vegetarians' were comparable to the 113 Mormon omnivores for strength of religious affiliation, consumption of alcohol, tea and coffee and use of tobacco, but were significantly less obese. 4. Obesity correlated positively with blood pressures in males and females of both diet classes. Age showed a positive correlation with blood pressure in females only. 5. Adjustment of blood pressures for age and Quetelet Index indicated that there is an additional blood pressure reducing effect associated with a vegetarian diet.
Scarpello, J. H. (1982). "Treatment of a diabetic vegetarian with human insulin (recombinant DNA): a case report." Diabetes Care 5 Suppl 2: 180.
A patient with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is described. He refused treatment with conventional (animal-derived) insulin since it would have compromised his principles as a vegetarian. Therapy was successfully instituted with human insulin (recombinant DNA).
Shinwell, E. D. and R. Gorodischer (1982). "Totally vegetarian diets and infant nutrition." Pediatrics 70(4): 582-586.
Observations on the deleterious effects of a totally vegetarian diet in infancy are reported and the difficulties encountered in the prevention of nutritional deficiencies in a vegan religious community are discussed. Twenty-five infants of this community who were seen at the hospital showed evidence of protein-calorie malnutrition, iron- and vitamin B12-deficient anemia, rickets, zinc deficiency, and multiple recurrent infections. Evidence of growth retardation was also found in 47 infants seen at the local mother-child health (well-baby) clinic. Samples of breast milk showed low levels of carbohydrate (1.6 to 3.5 gm/100 ml), protein (0.8 to 1.4 gm/100 ml), and fat (2.4 to 4.1 gm/100 ml). The main constituent of the infants' diet after the age of 3 months (a "soya milk" prepared at the community's central kitchen) was extremely dilute with a very low calorific value (13.7 kcal/100 ml). Persistent attempts to find dietary modifications that would satisfy both the vegan philosophy and also the recommended dietary allowances failed. This problem represents a scientific and medicosocial challenge to pediatricians and nutritionists.
Sorbris, R., et al. (1982). "Vegetarian fasting of obese patients: a clinical and biochemical evaluation." Scand J Gastroenterol 17(3): 417-424.
The effects of vegetarian fasting were evaluated in 14 grossly obese patients who participated in a program comprising 5 weeks' fasting in a lactovegetarian health center. Before and after the fasting period the patients were hospitalized and put on a standardized weight-maintaining diet; at the health center they consumed vegetable juices containing less than 1 MJ and 3 g of protein per day. The weight reduction (mean +/- S.D.) was 13.4 +/- 5.0 kg (from 132.0 +/- 27.2 to 118.6 +/- 16.1 kg). Except for the first few days the patients had no severe hunger sensations. No severe adverse clinical effects were noted. The laboratory status--comprising serum or plasma levels of minerals, protein, and lipids; hematological data; and variables reflecting liver and thyroid function--revealed abnormal group mean values only for ferritin and the acute-phase reactants haptoglobin, C-reactive protein, and anti-chymotrypsin in the obese. The levels of potassium, retinol-binding protein, and haptoglobin decreased, and aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities and free fatty acid and glycerol concentrations increased as a result of the fasting. The most striking effect of the weight reduction was an increase in the HDL cholesterol levels. Fasting according to the described regimen thus seems to provide a safe method for treatment of obese patients.
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