(1980). "Position Paper on the vegetarian approach to eating." J Am Diet Assoc 77(1): 61-69.
Dwyer, J. T., et al. (1980). "Size, obesity, and leanness in vegetarian preschool children." J Am Diet Assoc 77(4): 434-439.
Alterations in a series of anthropometric measurements taken on 142 vegetarian preschool children adhering to macrobiotic or other vegetarian regimens were studied. Length, subscapular skinfolds, and arm-muscle cirumferences differed from expectations. Dietary group and age, but not sex, were associated with these variations. Measurements were more likely to be depressed among children on a macrobiotic diet. Differences were significant among children twelve to thirty-five months of age for length and subscapular skinfolds and among children thirty-six months or older for arm circumference and subscapular skinfolds. Fewer vegetarian children were obese, and more were lean, than would be expected from norms.
Dwyer, J. T., et al. (1980). "Mental age and I.Q. of predominantly vegetarian children." J Am Diet Assoc 76(2): 142-147.
Ford, M. J. (1980). "Megaloblastic anaemia in a vegetarian." Br J Clin Pract 34(7): 222.
Freeland-Graves, J. H., et al. (1980). "Zinc and copper content of foods used in vegetarian diets." J Am Diet Assoc 77(6): 648-654.
The zinc and copper content of seventy-four foods was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Each of these foods was reported to have been consumed by practicing vegetarians. Legumes, seeds, nuts, whole grains, hard cheeses, and some nutritional supplements were found to be excellent sources of both zinc and copper. Vegetables, fruits, and their products were generally poor sources of trace minerals, with the exception of seed and bean sprouts. Milk and milk products, including rennetless cheeses, contain small quantities of these minerals. Although many of the foods consumed by vegetarians do contain adequate amounts of zinc and copper, their bioavailability may be limited.
Freeland-Graves, J. H., et al. (1980). "Alterations in zinc absorption and salivary sediment zinc after a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet." Am J Clin Nutr 33(8): 1757-1766.
The effect of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on plasma zinc tolerance tests and plasma and saliva zinc levels was measured in 12 nonvegetarian women. A diet meeting the Recommended Dietary Allowances for all nutrients, including zinc, was fed to the subjects for 22 days. Initial zinc status of subjects was determined by zinc analysis of their diet, hair, plasma, and saliva. Plasma response to an oral load of 50 mg Zn was determined in five subjects before and after the dietary period. Zinc levels of salivary sediment, which consisted primarily of epithelial cells, significantly decreased from initial values of 128 to final levels, of 94 microgram/g. No significant differences were found in zinc levels of plasma or whole mixed saliva. Plasma response to initial zinc tolerance tests were inversely correlated (P < 0.05) to dietary protein levels. Significantly increased plasma zinc uptake and areas under zinc tolerance curves were found after consumption of vegetarian diets compared to diets containing meats. The increased plasma response to a zinc load and decrease in salivary sediment zinc after a vegetarian diet indicate that this diet adversely affects zinc status.
Fulton, J. R., et al. (1980). "Preschool vegetarian children. Dietary and anthropometric data." J Am Diet Assoc 76(4): 360-365.
Three-day dietary intakes were obtained on forty-eight preschool children between two and five years old, who had followed a vegetarian diet since birth. Intakes were calculated for food energy and selected nutrients. In addition, the children were measured for height, weight, triceps and subscapular skinfolds, and arm circumference. Average dietary intakes of the children compared favorably with the Recommended Dietary Allowances. Calcium was the only nutrient consumed in less than optimal amounts. Average intakes of the calculated amino acids were adequate when compared with available information. In general, anthropometric data were below the standards established by HANES findings, the National Center for Health Statistics, and available arm circumference data.
Marsh, A. G., et al. (1980). "Cortical bone density of adult lacto-ovo-vegetarian and omnivorous women." J Am Diet Assoc 76(2): 148-151.
Lacto-ovo-vegetarian women fifty to eighty-nine years of age lost 18 per cent bone mineral mass while omnivorous women lost 35 per cent. This study established that this difference could not be explained by a greater bone density in the lacto-ovo-vegetarians during the third, fourth, and fifth decades of life. The possibility of higher sulfur content in the meat-containing diet, the effect of excess phosphorus, and the effect of an acid-ash diet are discussed. From the standpoint of a general survey, comsumption of calcium-containing foods was not appreciably different in the two groups. It is, therefore, concluded that lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet may be beneficial in extended protective health care in terms of defense against, or control of, bone mineral loss in the later years of a woman's life.
Ross, T. (1980). "The vegetarian diet: animal, vegetable, mineral." Nurs Mirror 151(2): 22-24.
Treuherz, J. (1980). "Zinc and dietary fibre: observations on a group of vegetarian adolescents." Proc Nutr Soc 39(1): 10A.
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