Adlercreutz, H., et al. (1989). "Diet and urinary estrogen profile in premenopausal omnivorous and vegetarian women and in premenopausal women with breast cancer." J Steroid Biochem 34(1-6): 527-530.
The urinary estrogen profile was studied in the midfollicular phase twice, and diet four times during 1 yr in 10 premenopausal breast cancer (BC) patients consuming an omnivorous normal Finnish diet and in two control groups, one consuming an omnivorous (n = 12) and the other a lactovegetarian (n = 11) diet. Total fat intake in relation to caloric intake was almost identical in all three groups. Only with regard to grain fiber intake did the BC patients differ significantly from both other groups. No differences were found between the groups with regard to urinary excretion of 13 individual estrogens and total estrogens, with the exception of 4-hydroxyestrone (4-OH-E1), which was significantly lower (P less than 0.05) in the BC group than in the vegetarians. A high carbohydrate to protein ratio in the diet had a negative correlation with the excretion of 2-hydroxyestrogens and 2-hydroxyesterone (2-OH-E1) to 4-OH-E1 ratio. The BC group had significantly higher urinary 2-OH-E1 to E1 ratio (P less than 0.05) compared to the vegetarians. The 2-OH-E1 to 4-OH-E1 ratio was highest in the BC group (= 7.1) and differed significantly from that of the omnivores (= 4.3; P less than 0.02) and vegetarians (= 3.6; P less than 0.005). This ratio showed a negative correlation with intake of carbohydrates, starch, total and grain fiber. Urinary excretion of 4-OH-E1 correlated positively with total and grain fiber intake and plasma SHBG. Protein intake correlated positively with urinary 2-methoxy-E1 excretion, and retinol intake positively with catechol estrogen, E1 and E2 excretion. It is concluded that estrogen production and urinary estrogen profile in premenopausal breast cancer patients is normal with the exception of a low 4-OH-E1 excretion and high urinary 2-OH-E1 to 4-OH-E1 ratio. This ratio, which seems to depend on diet, is the only urinary estrogen parameter separating premenopausal BC patients from the control omnivorous and lactovegetarian women.
Adlercreutz, H., et al. (1989). "Diet and plasma androgens in postmenopausal vegetarian and omnivorous women and postmenopausal women with breast cancer." Am J Clin Nutr 49(3): 433-442.
We studied 27 postmenopausal women, 9 vegetarians, 10 omnivores, and 8 apparently healthy women with breast cancer (BC), four times during 1 y. Dietary intakes were recorded and plasma androgens and sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) binding capacity were determined. Androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), free T (FT), and SHBG were higher in omnivores than in vegetarians. In multiple correlation analysis, intakes of protein and fat were positively correlated with A, T, and FT, whereas the intakes of carbohydrate, grain, total fiber, and grain fiber showed the opposite correlations. Protein intake was positively correlated with percentage FT (%FT) and negatively with SHBG. BC patients had a similar pattern to omnivores with even higher levels of A and T (significant compared with vegetarians) and they showed significantly higher FT and lower SHBG than both control groups. We conclude that a Western-type diet in postmenopausal women is associated with high A, T, %FT, FT, and low SHBG and this pattern was apparent in the BC patients.
Carter, J. P., et al. (1989). "Clinical studies of a vegetarian food diet mixture." J Natl Med Assoc 81(5): 557-563.
A vegetarian food mixture when incorporated into a commercially prepared diet can be used as a supplement or in a vegetarian protein-sparing modified fast. A modification of this diet was given to protein-energy deficient malnourished children in Ethiopia, and it reversed their biochemical defects. The soluble or gel-forming fiber in the mixture also gives the product a favorable glycemic index and reduces glycemic excursion as well as fasting blood glucose and insulin levels. This accounts for the improvements seen in glucose tolerance in type II diabetic patients. These results, however, were preceded by a study of the effects of the mixture in improving glucose tolerance in diabetic rats. A clinical study among New Orleans police officers also suggests that this mixture helps people, without much self-motivation, to lose weight.
Cheron, G., et al. (1989). "[Severe megaloblastic anemia in 6-month-old girl breast-fed by a vegetarian mother]." Arch Fr Pediatr 46(3): 205-207.
The case of a young girl, born to a woman who was a vegetarian for 18 years, is presented. She had been exclusively breast-fed until the age of 6 months when a severe anemia was discovered with an extremely low hemoglobin level (1.9 g/100 ml). Her physical growth and psychomotor development had been normal until 3 months of age. Bone marrow showed megaloblastosis and the serum B12 level was low (45 ng/l). B12 levels were also decreased in both parents (110 and 105 ng/l) and in the mother's milk (12 ng/l). Treatment with parenteral B12 was successful. The importance of a careful dietetic inquiry in the case of an infant with megaloblastic anemia is stressed and likewise, as a preventive measure during all normal pregnancies.
Debski, B., et al. (1989). "Selenium content and glutathione peroxidase activity of milk from vegetarian and nonvegetarian women." J Nutr 119(2): 215-220.
The concentration of selenium (Se) in milk samples obtained from 26 lacto-ovo-vegetarian (vegetarian) women was significantly greater (22.2 +/- 0.8 ng/ml) than from 12 nonvegetarian women (16.8 +/- 1.3). Mean GSH-Px activity (EC 22.214.171.124) in milk from vegetarians was 146% of that in milk from nonvegetarians. A significant correlation between GSH-Px activity and Se concentration was observed (r = 0.76). Likewise a significant correlation was observed between milk linoleic acid content and GSH-Px activity (r = 0.68). In undialyzed samples from vegetarian women, most of the increased content of Se was found in fractions containing proteins of 100 kdaltons (kD) or more. The high glutathione peroxidase activity in milk from vegetarians was associated with selenoproteins in the 90 to 100 kD range. A distinct 40 kD Se peak was also detected in milk from vegetarians. There was no difference in Se intake between the two groups of women. Therefore, although data from the present study show that both the quantity and distribution of Se in human milk can be modified by the maternal diet, the increased Se content and GSH-Px activity in milk from vegetarians cannot be explained by an increased Se intake.
Gain, T. and M. Classen (1989). "[Vitamin D deficiency in vegetarian nutrition]." Dtsch Med Wochenschr 114(30): 1177.
Lombard, K. A., et al. (1989). "Carnitine status of lactoovovegetarians and strict vegetarian adults and children." Am J Clin Nutr 50(2): 301-306.
Because carnitine is contained primarily in meats and dairy products, vegetarian diets provide a model for assessing the impact of prolonged low carnitine intake on carnitine status. Plasma carnitine concentrations and urinary carnitine excretion were measured in adults and children consuming a strict vegetarian, lactoovovegetarian, or mixed diet. In adults plasma carnitine concentration and urinary carnitine excretion of strict vegetarians and lactoovovegetarians were significantly lower than those in the mixed-diet group but were not different from each other. In children significant differences were found between all three diet groups for both plasma carnitine concentration and urinary carnitine excretion. The differences in plasma carnitine concentrations were greater in children than in adults, possibly reflecting the effects of growth and tissue deposition. Small differences between diet groups in adults do not suggest a nutritionally significant difference in carnitine status. Whether vegetarian children are at greater risk for overt deficiency is not answered.
Malter, M., et al. (1989). "Natural killer cells, vitamins, and other blood components of vegetarian and omnivorous men." Nutr Cancer 12(3): 271-278.
The study population consisted of male vegetarians (aged 28-50 years), who were recruited from the vegetarian cohort being followed by the Department of Epidemiology (German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, FRG), and the same number of age- and sex-matched controls from the personnel of the same center. Among the vitamins tested, only the level of carotene was significantly higher in vegetarians; the levels of vitamin A, K, and E were not elevated. Among the other blood parameters tested, only creatinine and glutamine-transferase levels were significantly lower in vegetarians. The natural cytotoxicity of peripheral blood lymphocytes was measured using a chromium-release test. Cytotoxic activity, which is expressed as lytic units, was significantly higher in vegetarians than in their omnivorous controls by a factor of 2. The total number of white blood cells, lymphocytes, and other subpopulations did not differ between vegetarians and nonvegetarians. The enhanced natural cytotoxicity may be one of the factors contributing to the lower cancer risk shown by vegetarians.
Melby, C. L., et al. (1989). "Relation between vegetarian/nonvegetarian diets and blood pressure in black and white adults." Am J Public Health 79(9): 1283-1288.
We examined the possible interaction of race and diet on blood pressure (BP) in volunteer Black Seventh Day Adventists compared to volunteer White church members. Height, weight, waist and hip circumference, and resting seated BP were recorded in Black vegetarians (n = 55; age: 54.7 +/- 16.9 yrs), Black nonvegetarians (n = 59; 56.1 +/- 14.1 yrs), White vegetarians (n = 164; 52.2 +/- 16.7 yrs), and White nonvegetarians (n = 100; 52.6 +/- 15.6 yrs) attending a regional conference. Forty-four percent of the Black nonvegetarians were medicated hypertensives, compared to only 18 percent of the Black vegetarians, 7 percent of the White vegetarians, and 22 percent of the White nonvegetarians. Black vegetarians exhibited lower age and sex-adjusted systolic BP (means = 122.9/74.4 mm Hg) than Black nonvegetarians (means = 132.2/75.9 mm Hg). After further adjusting BP for body mass index and waist/hip ratio, the systolic BP among Black vegetarians remained lower (122.8) than Black nonvegetarians (129.7) but higher than that of the Whites who showed no diet-related BP differences.
Nieman, D. C., et al. (1989). "Hematological, anthropometric, and metabolic comparisons between vegetarian and nonvegetarian elderly women." Int J Sports Med 10(4): 243-251.
The purpose of this study was to investigate hematological, anthropometric, and metabolic differences in elderly women who were similar in most respects except for choice of diet. Nineteen vegetarian (V) and 12 non-vegetarian (NV) elderly women (mean ages 72.3 +/- 1.4 and 69.5 +/- 1.0 years, respectively) were recruited based on several selection criteria including race, religion, education, Quetelet Index, absence of major chronic disease and use of medications, physical activity, and geographic area. Average years of adherence by V and NV groups to dietary regimens were 46.3 +/- 3.3 and 69.6 +/- 1.0, respectively; Hematological comparisons revealed that the V elderly women had significantly lower glucose (4.60 +/- 0.09 vs 5.13 +/- 0.11 mmol/L), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (3.14 +/- 0.19 vs 4.09 +/- 0.27 mmol/L) and total cholesterol levels (5.41 +/- 0.20 vs 6.48 +/- 0.29 mmol/L) than the NV elderly women (P less than 0.01) for each. The V elderly women tended to have less body fat and midupper arm muscle area than the NV. No differences between groups were found in a variety of metabolic and electrocardiographic parameters during graded maximal treadmill testing except for lower heart rates in the V women. VO2max was not significantly different between the V and NV elderly women (23.8 +/- 1.5 vs 21.9 +/- 0.8 ml.kg-1.min-1, respectively). In summary, when healthy elderly V women are compared with closely matched NV peers, the vegetarian diet is associated with several benefits, primarily lower blood glucose and lipid levels, but not greater functional capacity.
Nieman, D. C., et al. (1989). "Dietary status of Seventh-Day Adventist vegetarian and non-vegetarian elderly women." J Am Diet Assoc 89(12): 1763-1769.
The purpose of this study was to investigate nutrient intakes of Seventh-Day Adventist elderly women who were similar in many demographic and life-style factors except for choice of diet. Twenty-three vegetarian and 14 non-vegetarian elderly women (mean +/- standard error ages 72.2 +/- 1.3 and 71.1 +/- 1.4 years, respectively) were recruited on the basis of several selection criteria, including race, religion, education, geographic area, Quetelet index, self-reported absence of major chronic disease and use of medications, and physical activity. Average years +/- SE of adherence to dietary regimens were 47.0 +/- 2.9 and 71.2 +/- 1.4 in the vegetarian and non-vegetarian groups, respectively. Results from analysis of 7-day food records showed that vegetarians consumed significantly less cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, and caffeine but more carbohydrate, dietary fiber, magnesium, vitamins E and A, thiamin, pantothenic acid, copper, and manganese than non-vegetarians (p less than .05). On the basis of group means, 67% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance was met for all nutrients except zinc and vitamin D in both groups, and vitamins B-6, folacin, and vitamin E in the non-vegetarians. Compared with non-vegetarians, vegetarians had significantly lower serum glucose (5.18 +/- 0.11 vs. 4.65 +/- 0.09 mmol/L), low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (4.08 +/- 0.25 vs. 3.34 +/- 0.19 mmol/L), and total cholesterol levels (6.46 +/- 0.27 vs. 5.62 +/- 0.21 mmol/L) (p less than .05). In summary, when healthy elderly vegetarian women were compared with closely matched non-vegetarian peers, the vegetarian diet was associated with improved nutrient intake and associated reductions in blood glucose and lipid levels.
O'Connell, J. M., et al. (1989). "Growth of vegetarian children: The Farm Study." Pediatrics 84(3): 475-481.
To examine the effects of a vegetarian diet on child growth, height and weight data of 404 vegetarian children aged 4 months to 10 years who lived in a collective community in Tennessee were studied. Height for age, weight for age, and weight for height were compared with the US growth reference. Birth weights, infant feeding patterns, and parental heights were also evaluated in relation to growth. Most of the height for age, weight for age, and weight for height (n = 833) were within the 25th and 75th percentiles of the US growth reference. The mean height for age and weight for age, however, were slightly less than the median of the reference population. For different age groups, the mean height ranged from 0.2 to 2.1 cm and the mean weight ranged from 0.1 to 1.1 kg less than the reference median. The largest height difference was observed at 1 to 3 years of age and may be partly the result of intrinsic irregularities in the US growth reference at those ages. By 10 years of age, children from The Farm averaged 0.7 cm and 1.1 kg less than the reference median, representing only 0.1 and 0.3 SD from the reference. Thus, these children have adequate attained growth, even though it was modestly less than that of the reference population.
Skoldstam, L. (1989). "[Vegetarian diets and rheumatoid arthritis. Is it possible that a vegetarian diet might influence the disease?]." Nord Med 104(4): 112-114, 124.
For several decades representatives of Scandinavian health food movements have categorically recommended that victims of rheumatoid arthritis should switch to a vegetarian diet to obtain a cure for the disease. A very strict vegan diet (i.e., completely lacking in animal protein) is usually recommended, with certain features said to be particularly beneficial to rheumatic patients. These notions have been widely disseminated and have been adopted with remarkable faith by the public. Although a measure of support for the subjective palliative effects of a vegan diet has derived from certain medical studies, it should be borne in mind that, apart from exceptional cases, the inflammatory joint condition has persisted unabated; nor has the diet shown any tendency to forestall subsequent joint damage. More recent studies of the importance of various dietary factors vis-a-vis rheumatoid arthritis have to some extent improved our understanding of vegan diets, and shown there to be features of this type of diet which might contribute to the subjective improvement experienced by patients. The findings of such studies may provide a basis for speculation as to the form a more rational health food diet for rheumatic patients in the future.
Stammers, J. P., et al. (1989). "High arachidonic acid levels in the cord blood of infants of mothers on vegetarian diets." Br J Nutr 61(1): 89-97.
1. Maternal and umbilical cord plasma samples were collected from forty-seven Asian women, twenty-eight life-long vegetarians and seventeen non-vegetarians, during delivery of their babies. The concentrations and fatty acid profiles of the plasma free fatty acid and triacylglycerol fractions were determined. 2. There were no significant differences between the levels of free fatty acid and triacylglycerol in either maternal or cord plasma from vegetarian compared with non-vegetarian Asian women. The fatty acid profiles of the lipid fractions in the two groups were similar. Total plasma free fatty acid levels in the maternal circulation correlated with umbilical cord levels. 3. The levels of linoleic acid in the maternal plasma free fatty acid fraction of the Asian women were much higher than previous reports on mixed populations of European women. In the Asian women arachidonic acid concentrations in both maternal and umbilical circulations were over four times higher than those reported for women unselected for race and diet.
Tayter, M. and K. L. Stanek (1989). "Anthropometric and dietary assessment of omnivore and lacto-ovo-vegetarian children." J Am Diet Assoc 89(11): 1661-1663.
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