(2002). "Should I become a vegetarian?" Harv Womens Health Watch 9(6): 1-3.
Barr, S. I. and G. E. Chapman (2002). "Perceptions and practices of self-defined current vegetarian, former vegetarian, and nonvegetarian women." J Am Diet Assoc 102(3): 354-360.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the diversity of vegetarians' dietary practices and how they change over time, and to explore perceptions of meat and dairy products among vegetarians, former vegetarians, and nonvegetarians. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey; qualitative interviews with a subsample. SUBJECTS/SETTING: Ninety self-defined current vegetarian, 35 former vegetarian and 68 nonvegetarian women in Vancouver, British Columbia. A subsample of 15 subjects completed qualitative interviews. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS PERFORMED: Group comparisons using 1-way analysis of variance with post-hoc testing for continuous variables, chi2 for categorical variables. RESULTS: Of 90 current vegetarians, 51 and 14 reported occasional use of fish or chicken respectively. Fifty-six vegetarians, including 4 of 6 vegans, reported that their diets had become more restrictive over time, and 48 planned additional changes, most frequently a reduction in dairy product use. Reasons cited by former vegetarians for resuming omnivorous diets included: not feeling healthy, concern about their nutritional status, a change in living situation, or missing the taste of meat. Perceptions of meat and dairy products differed significantly by dietary pattern: nonvegetarians and former vegetarians were more likely than current vegetarians to agree with statements inferring positive attributes (eg, nutrient content). In contrast, more current and former vegetarians than nonvegetarians agreed with statements inferring negative attributes (eg, presence of contaminants). APPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS: Dietitians who counsel women need to be aware of the heterogeneity of dietary practices and beliefs regarding use of animal products to provide advice appropriate to each individual. At a broader level, addressing women's food safety and animal welfare concerns will likely require collaboration among food industry and government, health, and consumer agencies.
Bennett, R. M. (2002). "A raw vegetarian diet for patients with fibromyalgia." Curr Rheumatol Rep 4(4): 284.
Bissoli, L., et al. (2002). "Effect of vegetarian diet on homocysteine levels." Ann Nutr Metab 46(2): 73-79.
OBJECTIVE: To compare fasting total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) levels in vegans, lacto-ovovegetarians and control subjects, and to evaluate the relationships between tHcy levels and nutritional variables in vegetarians. METHODS: The study was conducted on 45 vegetarian subjects: 31 vegans (19 males, 12 females, mean age 45.8 +/- 15.8 years); 14 lacto-ovovegetarians (6 males, 8 females, mean age 48.5 +/- 14.5 years), and 29 control subjects (19 males, 10 females, mean age 43.4 +/- 16.7 years). tHcy was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Serum vitamin B(12) and folate were analyzed by automated chemiluminescence systems. Clinical records, nutritional and anthropometric variables were collected for all vegetarian subjects. RESULTS: tHcy was significantly higher in vegetarian subjects than in controls (23.9 +/- 21.3 vs. 11.6 +/- 4.9 micromol/l, p < 0.001). The prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia was higher in vegetarians than in controls (53.3 vs. 10.3%, p < 0.001). Serum vitamin B(12) levels were lower in vegetarians than in control subjects (171.2 +/- 73.6 vs. 265.0 +/- 52.2 pmol/l, p < 0.01; normal range 220-740 pmol/l). In vegetarian subjects, significant inverse correlations were found between tHcy and serum vitamin B(12) levels (r = -0.776, p < 0.001) and between tHcy and serum folate levels (r = -0.340, p < 0.05). Positive correlations were found between tHcy and mean red cell volume (r = 0.44, p < 0.01) and between tHcy and fat-free mass (r = 0.36, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Vegetarian subjects presented significantly higher tHcy levels, higher prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia, and lower serum vitamin B(12) levels than controls.
Cupisti, A., et al. (2002). "Vegetarian diet alternated with conventional low-protein diet for patients with chronic renal failure." J Ren Nutr 12(1): 32-37.
OBJECTIVES: A dietary management program, consisting of the alternation between a vegetarian low-protein diet (VD) and an animal-based conventional low-protein diet (CLPD), aims to increase foods choices and to improve compliance with dietary prescriptions, psychologic aspects, and the quality of life of renal patients. The present study investigates the subjective effects and the practical consequences of this dietary approach in patients with chronic renal failure. METHODS: Twenty patients (13 men, 7 women, 53 +/- 10 years) with chronic renal failure (creatinine clearance, <45 mL/min) were given the possibility to alternate (at their own convenience) the CLPD with the VD. After a follow-up period of 9 +/- 8 months, biochemistries were drawn and a questionnaire was mailed to asses the patients' subjective remarks about the proposed dietary management. RESULTS: Most of the patients (90%) favorably accepted this dietary schedule because it provided more variety, it was less repetitive, and it was more suitable for those leading an active life. In many cases, patients reported that their quality of life and some psychologic problems were improved, as well as the palatability of the diet. On this dietary regimen, monthly demands of starch-made foods can be reduced and, hence, the social and/or individual costs. These features contributed to better compliance with dietary prescriptions. Nutritional parameters did not change significantly, and a decrease in total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations suggest that alternating between an animal-based CLPD and a vegetable-based VD can provide a useful dietary management for renal patients, giving them more chances for long-lasting dietary compliance.
Hayashi, H., et al. (2002). "Fecal microbial diversity in a strict vegetarian as determined by molecular analysis and cultivation." Microbiol Immunol 46(12): 819-831.
Fecal microbial diversity in a strictly vegetarian woman was determined by the 16S rDNA library method, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and a culture-based method. The 16S rDNA library was generated from extracted fecal DNA, using bacteria-specific primers. Randomly selected clones were partially sequenced. T-RFLP analysis was performed using amplified 16S rDNA. The lengths of T-RF were analyzed after digestion by HhaI and MspI. The cultivated bacterial isolates were used for partial sequencing of 16S rDNA. Among 183 clones obtained, approximately 29% of the clones belonged to 13 known species. About 71% of the remaining clones were novel "phylotypes" (at least 98% similarity of clone sequence). A total of 55 species or phylotypes were identified among the 16S rDNA library, while the cultivated isolates included 22 species or phylotypes. In addition, many new phylotypes were detected from the 16S rDNA library. The 16S rDNA library and isolates commonly included the Bacteroides group, Bifidobacterium group, and Clostridium rRNA clusters IV, XIVa, XVI and XVIII. T-RFLP analysis revealed the major composition of the vegetarian gut microbiota were Clostridium rRNA subcluster XIVa and Clostridium rRNA cluster XVIII. The dominant feature of this strictly vegetarian gut microbiota was the detection of many Clostridium rRNA subcluster XIVa and C. ramosum (Clostridium rRNA cluster XVIII).
Herrmann, W. and J. Geisel (2002). "Vegetarian lifestyle and monitoring of vitamin B-12 status." Clin Chim Acta 326(1-2): 47-59.
Vegetarians are at risk to develop deficiencies of some essential nutrients, especially vitamin B-12 (cobalamin). Cobalamin occurs in substantial amounts only in foods derived from animals and is essential for one-carbon metabolism and cell division. Low nutritional intake of vitamin B-12 may lead to negative balance and, finally, to functional deficiency when tissue stores of vitamin B-12 are depleted. Early diagnosis of vitamin B-12 deficiency seems to be useful because irreversible neurological damages may be prevented by cobalamin substitution. The search for a specific and sensitive test to diagnose vitamin B-12 deficiency is ongoing. Serum vitamin B-12 measurement is a widely applied standard method. However, the test has poor predictive value. Optimal monitoring of cobalamin status in vegetarians should include the measurement of homocysteine (HCY), methylmalonic acid (MMA), and holotranscobalamin II. Vitamin B-12 deficiency can be divided into four stages. In stages I and II, indicated by a low plasma level of holotranscobalamin II, the plasma and cell stores become depleted. Stage III is characterized by increased levels of HCY and MMA in addition to lowered holotranscobalamin II. In stage IV, clinical signs become recognizable like macroovalocytosis, elevated MCV of erythrocytes or lowered haemoglobin. In our investigations, we have found stage III of vitamin B-12 deficiency in over 60% of vegetarians, thus underlining the importance of cobalamin monitoring in this dietary group.
Iamaroon, A., et al. (2002). "Iron and vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia in a vegetarian: a diagnostic approach by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay." Dent Update 29(5): 223-224.
This article presents the case of a 46-year-old vegetarian who had a painful dry socket in the left third molar areas. Since the patient's general appraisal was anaemic, investigations for haematological status, folic acid and vitamin B12 were performed. The results revealed that the patient was severely iron deficient and slightly vitamin B12 deficient.
Ivanov, A. N., et al. (2002). "[Vegetarian diet in treating elderly patients with ischemic heart disease (clinico-hemodynamic, biochemical, and hemorheological effects)]." Vopr Pitan 71(3): 11-14.
The inclusion of balanced antiatherogenis of vegetarian diet in a complex of therapeutical means of the patients of ischemic heart disease in elderly age (average age 72.3 years) promotes normalization of clinical and biochemical parameters, correction of lipid metabolism and parameters plasma hemostasis. Vegetarian antiatherogenis the diet is perspective means in treatment of the patients ischemic heart disease of elderly age.
James-Enger, K. (2002). "Express lane. Diabetic cooking. Vegetarian delights." Diabetes Forecast 55(6): 97-99.
Kandiah, J. (2002). "Impact of tofu or tofu + orange juice on hematological indices of lacto-ovo vegetarian females." Plant Foods Hum Nutr 57(2): 197-204.
The purpose of this study was to investigate iron status of premenopausal vegetarian women consuming tofu or tofu plus orange juice. Following a three day pre-period, 14 lacto-ovo vegetarians were randomly divided into two experimental periods of 30 days each. For the first 30 days, one half of the subjects (n = 7) received 6 oz (173 grams) of tofu/day (T) while the other half of the subjects (n = 7) received 6 oz of tofu/day along with 303 mg of vitamin C/d (TO). After 30 days, there was a crossover of the diets. Iron status was assessed by measuring serum ferritin and hemoglobin concentrations on the first day of the study and at the end of each experimental period. The Mann Whitney-U test was significant during the first (W = 17.5; Z = -2.095; p = 0.0361) and over the second (W = 40.0; Z = -2.611; p = 0.009) experimental periods which indicated the change in hemoglobin levels for the T and TO groups were different. Mean ranks showed a greater increase in hemoglobin levels for the TO group. There was no significant difference in the change in serum ferritin levels between the T and TO groups over the first and second experimental periods. In conclusion, bioavailability of iron from tofu is enhanced by supplementation with ascorbic acid.
Kwok, T., et al. (2002). "Independent effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on hematological status in older Chinese vegetarian women." Am J Hematol 70(3): 186-190.
We have examined the independent effect of vitamin B(12) deficiency on hematological indices in older Chinese vegetarian women using a cross-sectional study design: 119 women older than 55 years who had been vegetarian for more than 3 years were studied. Fasting blood samples were taken for complete blood count, serum iron, total serum iron binding capacity, serum iron saturation, serum vitamin B(12), serum folate, serum methylmalonic acid levels (MMA), and renal function test. Subjects with iron deficiency (iron saturation <15%) and those with serum creatinine >150 mmol/L were excluded. The prevalence of definite vitamin B(12) deficiency (vitamin B(12) level < 150 pmol/L and MMA >or= 0.4 micromol/L) was 42%. Another 32.8% had possible vitamin B(12) deficiency (either criterion). The prevalence of iron deficiency was 10%. After exclusions, 96 subjects were further analyzed. Vitamin B(12) deficiency defined by serum vitamin B(12) and MMA was associated with a decrease in hemoglobin concentrations by up to 0.9 g/dL, but it was not associated with an increase in mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Serum MMA but not vitamin B(12) levels correlated inversely with hemoglobin and platelet counts and positively with MCV, after adjustment of confounding factors. However, the percentage of subjects with anemia did not increase significantly until serum MMA became >1.0 micromol/L. In conclusion, vitamin B(12) deficiency was associated with a significant decrease in hemoglobin concentration. However, anemia associated with vitamin B(12) deficiency was seldom macrocytic. We recommend that older vegetarians should be given vitamin B(12) supplements routinely.
Larkin, M. (2002). "Vegetarian option for biotech drugs could cut BSE risk." Lancet Infect Dis 2(12): 715.
Liesegang, A., et al. (2002). "Influence of a vegetarian diet versus a diet with fishmeal on bone in growing pigs." J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 49(5): 230-238.
This study was conducted to examine if substantial bone loss occurs in growing pigs fed a vegetarian diet in comparison with a diet containing fishmeal. Twelve 6-week-old weaned pigs were assigned to two groups: group V [vegetarian diet; 0.61% phosphorus (P) in dry matter until 25 kg and 0.46% P until the end of the experiment] and group F (fishmeal diet; 0.61% P in dry matter until 25 kg and 0.46% P until the end of the experiment). Phytase was added to both diets. These two diets were fed to the two groups for a period of 6 weeks. Blood samples were collected weekly, faeces were collected three times a week. Concentrations of osteocalcin (OC) and carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) were measured in serum, using a radioimmunoassay, and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bAP) was measured using an enzyme immunoassay. Bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) were determined by peripheral quantitative computer tomography (pQCT) in the tibia and phalanx. In addition, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (VitD) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured in serum. The digestibility of P was significantly decreased in group V. Significant changes in bAP activities and OC concentrations occurred with time during the 6 weeks. ICTP concentrations were significantly higher in group V. Total BMC and BMD in the tibia and BMD in the phalanx significantly decreased in group V. The results show that a vegetarian diet induces a significant loss of bone and a higher bone formation in group V compared with group F, although phytase was added to both diets. The dietary requirements for P in pigs, especially in the context of feeding vegetarian diets and adding an appropriate amount of phytase, should be investigated further.
Lukaszuk, J. M., et al. (2002). "Effect of creatine supplementation and a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on muscle creatine concentration." Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 12(3): 336-348.
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of preceding oral creatine monohydrate with a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on muscle creatine concentration. Thirty-two healthy men, who regularly consumed an omnivorous diet, were randomly assigned to consume a weight maintaining, lacto-ovo-vegetarian (LOV; n = 16) or omnivorous (Omni; n = 16) diet for 26 days. In addition to their assigned diet, on day 22 of the study, subjects were assigned in a double-blind manner to receive either creatine monohydrate (CM; 0.3 g kg d 1 + 20 g Polycose) or an equivalent dose of placebo (PL) for 5 days. There were no significant differences between the LOV and Omni groups at baseline with respect to age, height, and weight. The results demonstrated that consuming a LOV diet for 21 days was an effective procedure to decrease muscle creatine concentration (p <.01) in individuals who normally consume meat and fish in their diet. However, muscle total creatine (TCr) following creatine supplementation did not differ statistically between LOV and Omni diet groups (148.6 4.5 vs. 141.7 4.5 mmol kg-1 d.m.).
McGee, T. (2002). "For parents. Planning a vegetarian diet." Diabetes Self Manag 19(4): 53-54, 56, 59.
Plevrakis, P. (2002). "Iron and vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia in a vegetarian." Dent Update 29(10): 515.
Robinson, F., et al. (2002). "Changing from a mixed to self-selected vegetarian diet--influence on blood lipids." J Hum Nutr Diet 15(5): 323-329.
OBJECTIVE: To observe any changes in serum concentrations of lipids, when UK meat-eaters switch to a self selected vegetarian diet for 6 months. DESIGN: Observational study using capillary blood samples and 3-day estimated dietary diary. SETTING: Free-living subjects in the North-West of England. SUBJECTS: Twelve male and 31 female adult volunteers aged between 18 and 42 years. OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum lipids; nutrient intake and anthropometric measurements at baseline and 6 months after switching to a self-selected vegetarian diet. RESULTS: Total energy intake and amount of energy derived from saturated fatty acids decreased significantly after changing to a vegetarian diet (P < 0.05) whereas energy derived from carbohydrate, and intakes of nonstarch polysaccharide intake increased. On switching to a vegetarian diet, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations were not significantly changed, but HDL-C was 21% higher than at baseline (1.21 mmol L(-1) vs. 1.47 mmol L(-1); P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that beneficial changes to diet occurred on changing to a self-selected vegetarian diet. Changing to a self-selected vegetarian diet appears to be one way of achieving a better blood lipid profile.
Strucinska, M. (2002). "[Vegetarian diets of breastfeeding women in the light of dietary recommendations]." Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 53(1): 65-79.
The literature review concerning selected nutritional and health aspects of applying different vegetarian diets by breastfeeding women was presented. The only two types of vegetarian diets: lactoovo- and semi-vegetarian, when properly composed, seem to be relatively safe for mother and her child. The most threatening vegetarian diets for lactating women are those including exclusively products of plant origin (so called restricted diets: vegan or macrobiotic). The results of studies performed on mothers consuming these vegetarian diets showed deficiencies in: vitamin B12 and vitamin D (in mothers and their infants) and calcium (only in lactating women). The low intake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was also characteristic in this group. Additionally the endogenous metabolism of DHA is inhibited due to high proportion of linoleic vs. linolenic acid intake. It considered that lactating women on vegetarian diet should have a greater nutritional knowledge in order to avoid deficiencies which would adversely affect mother's and her child's health.
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