Azad, K. A., et al. (2000). "Vegetarian diet in the treatment of fibromyalgia." Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull 26(2): 41-47.->한글로 번역완료
Brain tryptophan is low in fibromyalgia. Intake of protein rich in large neutral amino acids is reported to lower brain tryptophan. This study was undertaken to assess whether any reduction of such proteins by exclusion of animal protein from the diet reduced pain and morbidity in fibromyalgia patients. It was an open, randomized controlled trial. 37 subjects with fibromyalgia were enrolled in the vegetarian diet and 41 in the amitriptyline groups. The outcome was assessed with the help of frequencies of fatigue, insomnia & non-restorative sleep, pain score on a 10-point VAS and tender point count. Fatigue, insomnia and non-restorative sleep were present in 41, 26 and 32 subjects before and in 3, 0 and 0 subjects respectively at six weeks of treatment in the amitriptyline group. The pain score and tender point count were 6.2 +/- 1.9 & 16.1 +/- 2.3 before and 2.3 +/- 1.3 & 6.4 +/- 3.0 after treatment. All these differences were significant (P < 0.001). In the vegetarian diet group, fatigue, insomnia and non-restorative sleep were present in 36, 24 and 27 subjects before and in 34, 29 and 29 subjects at six weeks of treatment. The pain score and tender point count were 5.7 +/- 1.8 and 15.7 +/- 2.4 before and 5.0 +/- 1.8 & 14.7 +/- 3.6 after treatment. All these differences were insignificant except that in the pain score. The decrease in the pain score, though significant, was much smaller than that in the amitriptyline group. So, it may be concluded that vegetarian diet is a poor option in the treatment of fibromyalgia.
Barnard, N. D. (2000). "The lipid-lowering effect of lean meat diets falls far short of that of vegetarian diets." Arch Intern Med 160(3): 395-396.
Barnard, N. D., et al. (2000). "Effectiveness of a low-fat vegetarian diet in altering serum lipids in healthy premenopausal women." Am J Cardiol 85(8): 969-972.
Few controlled trials have studied cholesterol-lowering diets in premenopausal women. None has examined the cholesterol-lowering effect of a low-fat vegetarian diet, which, in other population groups, leads to marked reductions in serum cholesterol concentrations and, in combination with other life-style changes, a regression of atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that a low-fat, vegetarian diet significantly reduces serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations in premenopausal women. In a crossover design, 35 women, aged 22 to 48, followed a low-fat vegetarian diet deriving approximately 10% of energy from fat for 2 menstrual cycles. For 2 additional cycles, they followed their customary diet while also taking a "supplement" (placebo) pill. Serum lipid concentrations were assessed at baseline and during each intervention phase. Mean serum LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and total cholesterol concentrations decreased 16. 9%, 16.5%, and 13.2%, respectively, from baseline to the intervention diet phase (p<0.001), whereas mean serum triacylglycerol concentration increased 18.7% (p<0.01). LDL/HDL ratio remained unchanged. Thus, in healthy premenopausal women, a low-fat vegetarian diet led to rapid and sizable reductions in serum total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol concentrations.
Barr, S. I. and T. M. Broughton (2000). "Relative weight, weight loss efforts and nutrient intakes among health-conscious vegetarian, past vegetarian and nonvegetarian women ages 18 to 50." J Am Coll Nutr 19(6): 781-788.
OBJECTIVE: To compare relative weight, weight loss efforts and nutrient intakes among similarly health-conscious vegetarian, past vegetarian and nonvegetarian premenopausal women. METHODS: Demographic data, lifestyle practices and weight loss efforts (by questionnaire), body mass index (BMI;kg/m2) and dietary intake (via multiple-pass 24-hour diet recall) were compared in a convenience sample of 90 current vegetarians, 35 past vegetarians and 68 nonvegetarians. RESULTS: Age (31.9 +/- 8.8), educational attainment, smoking status, alcohol use, physical activity and perceived health status were similar among the three groups of women. BMI did not differ by dietary pattern and averaged 23.7 +/- 4.7 for all women combined. Participants had intentionally lost > or = 10 pounds a mean of 2.1 times, and 39% of women perceived themselves to be overweight; again, no differences were observed among dietary groups. Dietary intakes of vegetarians and current nonvegetarians were consistent with current recommendations for macronutrient composition (< 30% fat, < 10% saturates). Compared to current nonvegetarians, current vegetarians had lower intakes of protein, saturated fat, cholesterol, niacin, vitamins B12 and D, and higher fiber and magnesium intakes. Vegetarians' mean vitamin B12 and D intakes were well below recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: Relative weight and weight loss efforts do not differ by dietary pattern among similarly health-conscious vegetarian and nonvegetarian women. The only differences in nutrient intake with potential health implications were vitamins D and B12.
Baschetti, R. (2000). "Vegetarian diet." QJM 93(6): 387.
Buffonge, I. (2000). "The vegetarian/vegan lifestyle." West Indian Med J 49(1): 17-19.
Caso, G., et al. (2000). "Albumin synthesis is diminished in men consuming a predominantly vegetarian diet." J Nutr 130(3): 528-533.
Albumin synthesis was calculated in healthy male volunteers consuming diets differing in the relative contribution of protein from animal or vegetable sources. In one study (Study 1, n = 4) two isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets were consumed for a period of 10 d each. One diet (diet A) was animal protein rich (74%), the other one (diet V) contained 67% of vegetable protein. Albumin synthesis rate was measured from L-[(2)H(5)]phenylalanine incorporation (43 mg/kg) at the end of each dietary period. Both albumin fractional synthesis rate (FSR) (5.7 +/- 0.6 vs. 6.7 +/- 0. 8%/d, P = 0.04) and absolute synthesis rate (ASR) (123 +/- 6 vs. 143 +/- 8 mg. kg(-1). d(-1), P = 0.05) were reduced after diet V. In a second study (Study 2, n = 8) a third dietary treatment was added (Diet VS). This was similar to diet V but supplemented with soy protein (18g/d). The results of study 2 confirmed that albumin synthesis was reduced after diet V (FSR: 5.9 +/- 0.3 vs. 6.7 +/- 0. 5%/d, P = 0.015; ASR: 126 +/- 7 vs. 146 +/- 9 mg. kg(-1). d(-1), P = 0.007), but it also showed that the drop could be prevented by adding supplemental protein to the predominantly vegetarian diet (Diet VS) (FSR: 6.4 +/- 0.3%/d, P = 0.08; ASR: 140 +/- 7 mg. kg(-1). d(-1), P = 0.03). Albumin synthesis appears to be modulated by changes in the proportion of animal vs. vegetable protein occurring in the diet. The mechanism might be related to differences in digestibility and consequently in net amino acid availability between diets.
Di Leo, C., et al. (2000). "[Osteoporosis and phytoestrogens: an assessment of bone mineral density via quantitative peripheral computed tomography in milk-egg-vegetarian women in the premenopause]." Radiol Med 99(4): 250-257.
PURPOSE: Noninvasive assessment of bone mineral density, geometrical and biomechanical properties in premenopausal women with dietary intake of phytoestrogens and comparison of these parameters with those of age-matched female subjects with "Mediterranean" dietary intake lacking in these substances. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Volumetric cortical, trabecular and total mineral density and bone geometrical properties were evaluated in 15 female subjects with phytoestrogens dietary intake. Peripheral quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) was used to make measurements at the distal radius of the nondominant forearm. Fifteen age-matched subjects with "Mediterranean" dietary intake were chosen as a control group. Cross-sectional area (Total A), trabecular area (TA), cortical area (CA), cortical thickness (CThk) and strength strain index (SSI) were assessed as biomechanical parameters. RESULTS: Daily consumption of phytoestrogens was significatively different in the two groups (phy: 17.45 mg/die vs ctr: 0.35; p < 0.0005), while calcium intake was similar (phy: 652 mg/die vs ctr: 650). Total (0.460 g/cm3 vs ctr: 0.433) and trabecular (phy: 0.209 g/cm3 vs ctr: 0.189) bone mineral densities, such as SSI (phy: 925 mm3 vs ctr: 894) values, were higher in women with dietary intake of phytoestrogens, in comparison with the relative controls, but not significantly (p = ns). Among geometrical parameters, total area and cortical area were tendential in women with a vegetarian diet while cortical thickness was the same in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: pQCT showed higher bone mineral density (total and trabecular) and SSI values in premenopausal women with dietary intake of phytoestrogens. Despite the lack of statistical significance, these preliminary results, should further support the few literature findings about the potential role of phytoestrogens consumption in preventing trabecular bone loss. However, further studies are warranted to evaluate definitively the efficacy of phytoestrogens in preventing postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Hudson, P. and R. Buckley (2000). "Vegetarian diets. Are they good for pregnant women and their babies?" Pract Midwife 3(7): 22-23.
Krajcovicova-Kudlackova, M., et al. (2000). "[Nutritional risk factors of a vegetarian diet in adult lacto-ovo vegetarians]." Bratisl Lek Listy 101(1): 38-43.
Risk nutritional factors of alternative alimentation detected in childhood were evaluated in a group of adult lactoovovegetarians (n = 47). The levels of iron, calcium, zinc, total proteins, gluthatione, plasmatic profile of fatty acids and the lipoperoxidation product in correlation with the values of antioxidative vitamins were studied. The results are compared with mean sample upon mixed nutrition (omnivores n = 42). In both groups were the mean values of iron, calcium and zinc in physiological range, but significantly lower in vegetarians. In the alternative nutrition group was in 21 percent of probands hyposiderinemia detected (vs 5 percent in the omnivores group), in 19 percent of probands hypocalcemia (vs 9 percent) and in 6 percent hypozincemia (vs 0 percent). Full-bodied mixture of milk proteins, egg proteins and vegetable sources in lactoovovegetarians ensured sufficient protein saturation and caused significantly higher level of blood gluthatione (intake also in food). Increased value of fatty acid peroxidation index was not due to increased lipoperoxidation in lactoovovegetarians--significantly lower levels of conjugated fatty acid dienes were determined. This was ensured by sufficient protection by means of essential antioxidants--the levels of vitamins E, C, beta-carotene are in vegetarians significantly higher. These are overtreshold values representing reduced risk of free-radical diseases. Lactoovovegetarians had significantly higher content of linoleic and alpha-linoleic acids in plasma. Values of polyunsaturated fatty acids with C20 and C22 and 3-6 double bonds were similar to values in omnivores. In probands on alternative nutrition with iron deficit was significantly lower activity of delta 6 desaturase determined. (Tab. 3, Ref. 45.)
Leblanc, J. C., et al. (2000). "Nutritional intakes of vegetarian populations in France." Eur J Clin Nutr 54(5): 443-449.
OBJECTIVE: To assess food behaviour and determine nutritional intakes of various vegetarian populations in France. DESIGN: A five-day self-administered food record which was mailed to members of the three principal French vegetarian organisations. SUBJECTS: 145 subjects, aged 7-87 y; 94 classical vegetarians (19% of those contacted), 34 Hindu lactovegetarians (17% of those contacted) and 17 macrobiotic (34% of those contacted). SETTING: The survey was conducted between March 1997 and July 1997 in France. RESULTS: Vegetarianism in France is represented by three main classes of food behaviour: ovolactovegetarian (AAV), lactovegetarian (KRI) and macrobiotic (MMK). The geometric mean intakes ranged from 1952 kcal/d (KRI), 2051 kcal/d (MMK) to 2384 kcal/d (AAV) for males and from 1302 kcal/d (MMK), 1675 kcal/d (AAV) to 1804 kcal/d (KRI) for females, after adjusting for age and BMI. The energy consumption in the MMK group was significantly lower than that in the AAV (P<0.05) and KRI groups (P<0.01), respectively. A difference among groups was observed for females (P=0.0002), but not for males. The MMK group consumed less lipid than the other two vegetarian groups, 46 g/d for men and 38 g/d for women vs 80 g/d for men and 61 g/d for women in the AAV group and 93 g/d for men and 81 g/d for women in the KRI group, respectively. Differences with AAV and MMK were statistically significant (P<0.001 for men and women for both groups). Mean protein consumption ranged from 60 g/d (AAV), 64 g/d (KRI) to 77 g/d (MMK) for males and from 46 g/d (MMK), 50 g/d (AAV) to 58 g/d (KRI) for females. Mean carbohydrate intakes ranged from 247 g/d (AAV), 321 g/d (KRI) to 338 g/d (MMK) in males and from 209 g/d (MMK), 228 g/d (AAV) to 242 g/d (KRI) in females. There were no significant differences in protein and carbohydrate intakes between the groups. Median calcium intakes ranged from 758.2 mg/d (MMK), 863 mg/d (AAV) to 989.3 mg/d (KRI) for the men and from 500.8 mg/d (MMK), 863 mg/d (AAV) to 934 mg/d (KRI) for the women. In the men, there was no differences in daily calcium intakes between the three vegetarian groups. However, we found a significant difference for women (P=0. 0041). The women in the MMK group presented significantly lower daily calcium intakes than the women in the AAV (P=0.013) and KRI (P=0.0032) groups. The AAV and KRI groups consumed dairy products supplying respectively 36% and 53% for the men and 39% and 59% for the women of total calcium against 0% for men and women in the MMK group. Median iron intakes ranged between 12.5 mg/d (KRI), 13.2 mg/d (AAV) and 22.5 mg/d (MMK) for the men and between 11.2 mg/d (KRI), 14.6 mg/d (AAV) and 16.9 mg/d (MMK) for the women. MMK (men P=0.0172 and women P=0.0131) and AAV (only in men P=0.037) groups consumed significantly higher quantities of iron than did the KRI group. The heme iron median intake in males and females of the three vegetarian groups was very low (<0.5%). Overall, the female vegetarians consumed 58.1 (MMK), 109 (AAV) and 127.4 (KRI) mg of vitamin C per day and the males 76.3 (MMK), 150.4 (AAV) and 150.4 (KRI) mg per day. Median vitamin B9 intakes ranged from 247.5 microg/d (KRI), 312 microg/d (MMK) to 390.4 microg/d (AAV) for the men and from 188.3 microg/d (MMK), 266.9 microg/d (KRI) to 323.8 microg/d (AAV) for the women. Vitamin B12 consumption ranged from 0.2 microg/d (MMK), 1.5 microg/d (AAV) to 1.7 microg/d (KRI) in the women and from 0.6 microg/d (MMK) to 1.0 microg/d (AAV and KRI) in the men. No differences in consumption were observed in the males. On the other hand, the women in the MMK group consumed significantly less vitamin C and B12 than did the women in the AAV (P=0.0006) and KRI (P=0. 0396) groups, while it was at the limit of significance for the females (P=0.0715) for vitamin B9. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that vegetarians have a better understanding of dietary requirements than does the general population. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)
Medkova, I. L., et al. (2000). "[Blood lipids and intensity of free radical oxidant processes in elderly patients with ischemic heart disease on antiatherogenic vegetarian diet]." Klin Med (Mosk) 78(1): 21-24.
The authors studied the effects of balanced antiatherogenic vegetarian diet enriched with soya bean products on blood lipids and intensity of free radical oxidant processes in elderly patients with ischemic heart disease. 45 patients with dyslipoproteinemia type IIA or IIB were examined for hemodynamic parameters, lipid spectrum and intensity of free radical oxidation. The diet promoted a trend to normalization of central hemodynamics, significantly reduced the level of atherogenic lipids in blood, improved free radical lipid peroxidation and activity of nonenzymatic antioxidant defence.
North, K. and J. Golding (2000). "A maternal vegetarian diet in pregnancy is associated with hypospadias. The ALSPAC Study Team. Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood." BJU Int 85(1): 107-113.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible role of the maternal diet, particularly vegetarianism and consumption of phytoestrogens, in the origin of hypospadias, which is reported to be increasing in prevalence. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Detailed information was obtained prospectively from mothers, including previous obstetric history, lifestyle and dietary practices, using structured self-completed questionnaires during pregnancy. Previously recognized associations with environmental and parental factors were examined, focusing particularly on the hypothesized hormonal link. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent associations. RESULTS: Of 7928 boys born to mothers taking part in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood, 51 hypospadias cases were identified. There were no significant differences in the proportion of hypospadias cases among mothers who smoked, consumed alcohol or for any aspect of their previous reproductive history (including the number of previous pregnancies, number of miscarriages, use of the contraceptive pill, time to conception and age at menarche). Significant differences were detected for some aspects of the maternal diet, i.e. vegetarianism and iron supplementation in the first half of pregnancy. Mothers who were vegetarian in pregnancy had an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 4.99 (95% confidence interval, CI, 2.10-11.88) of giving birth to a boy with hypospadias, compared with omnivores who did not supplement their diet with iron. Omnivores who supplemented their diet with iron had an adjusted OR of 2.07 (95% CI, 1.00-4.32). The only other statistically significant association for hypospadias was with influenza in the first 3 months of pregnancy (adjusted OR 3.19, 95% CI 1.50-6.78). CONCLUSION: As vegetarians have a greater exposure to phytoestrogens than do omnivores, these results support the possibility that phytoestrogens have a deleterious effect on the developing male reproductive system.
Rajaram, S. and J. Sabate (2000). "Health benefits of a vegetarian diet." Nutrition 16(7-8): 531-533.
Smith, C. F., et al. (2000). "Vegetarian and weight-loss diets among young adults." Obes Res 8(2): 123-129.
OBJECTIVE: Young adults frequently experiment with vegetarian and weight-loss diets. Comparisons of their experiences on these two different diets may help in the development of approaches to improve long-term adherence to weight-loss regimens. In the current study vegetarian and weight-loss diets were compared on how long and how strictly they were followed, and reasons why they were initiated and discontinued. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: From 428 college students surveyed, four groups were delineated: 1) 59 participants had been following a vegetarian diet but not a weight-loss diet (Vegetarian), 2) 117 participants had tried a weight-loss diet but not a vegetarian diet (Weight Loss), 3) 133 participants had followed both a vegetarian and a weight-loss diet (Both), and 4) 119 participants had not tried either diet (Neither). RESULTS: Differences were examined by comparing the Vegetarian and Weight-Loss groups as well as by comparing the two diets within the Both group. Duration of the vegetarian diet was much greater than the weight-loss diet; most participants in the Vegetarian group (62%) remained on their diet for more than 1 year, whereas the majority of the Weight-Loss participants (61%) followed their diet for 1 to 3 months. Similar results were found when comparing the two diets within the Both group. How strictly the two diets were followed, however, did not differ. Analyses revealed that reasons for discontinuing a diet varied; participants were more likely to cite boredom as a reason for discontinuing a weight-loss diet than a vegetarian diet (53% vs. 5% between groups and 30% vs. 10% within the Both group). DISCUSSION: The longer duration of the vegetarian diet relative to the weight-loss diet warrants further investigation. Results could possibly be applied to behavioral weight-loss treatment to improve long-term maintenance.
Thane, C. W. and C. J. Bates (2000). "Dietary intakes and nutrient status of vegetarian preschool children from a British national survey." J Hum Nutr Diet 13(3): 149-162.
BACKGROUND: Dietary intakes and nutrient status were compared in meat-eaters and non-meat-eaters from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of children aged 1.5-4.5 years. METHODS: Children (n = 1351) were categorized as 'omnivores' or 'vegetarians', according to whether they consumed meat or meat products during a 4-day dietary record. Blood samples were also obtained for analysis of haematological and biochemical nutrient status. RESULTS: Three per cent of children were 'vegetarian'. They consumed higher proportions of milk and milk products, although this was significant only in older children (P = 0.007), owing to high consumption by the high proportion of Asian children. In vegetarians, energy intakes tended to be lower in both age groups. Percentage energy from protein and fat were lower, while that from carbohydrate was higher compared with omnivores. Cholesterol intakes were lower, significantly so for younger children (P < 0.001). Intakes of micronutrients were either higher (vitamins C and E, potassium) or lower (niacin and sodium) in younger vegetarians compared with omnivores. Energy-adjusted intakes of iron and zinc did not differ significantly from those of omnivores, although both intakes were low in many children (6-20% < LRNI), particularly in the younger group. Haematological and biochemical nutrient status indices showed few differences. Serum ferritin was lower in vegetarians, significantly so in younger children (P = 0.002). Antioxidant vitamin (A, C and E) status tended to be higher in vegetarians, while vitamin B12 intakes and status were more than adequate. Apart from poorer vitamin D intake and status in older Asian vegetarians, very few ethnic differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Nutrient intakes and status were generally adequate in preschool children who did not eat meat. Although serum ferritin levels were inferior (particularly in vegetarians under 3 years old), the lower intakes of fat, cholesterol and sodium, and higher antioxidant vitamin intakes and status indices were potentially beneficial. Given a balanced diet, adequate nutrient intakes and status can be maintained without consuming meat.
Weinsier, R. (2000). "Use of the term vegetarian." Am J Clin Nutr 71(5): 1211-1213.
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